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LONDON : PRINTBD BY 

SrOTTISWOODS AND CO., NBW-STRKBT SQOASB 

AND PAXUAMBNT STRBST 



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TRAVELS 



AMOXi;sr 



THE TODAS 



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J'HE S'lL'DV OF A PRIMiriVK 'JRIHE IN 



SOUTH INDIA, 



THKIR HIsrORV, CHARACTER, CUSTOMS, RELUUOX, 
INFANTICIDE, POIA^XNDRV, LANCUACiE : 



Wri'H OUTLINES OF THE TUDA GRAMMAR. 



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WILLIAM E. MARSHALL. 



I.IKI 1 KSAN l-(.i)l.(iM I III HKK MAJI>TV "^ MIN'.AI •JTAFI «<»lr-«. 



1'I:K.MAXK,\T IIJ.ISTKATIOXS BY 7J/J-: ACroTYI'E rKVLhSS. 



LONDON : 
LONGMAiNS. (i R i: K N. AND CO. 



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PREFACE. 



the course of a furlough I took in the year 1870 
to the Madras sanatarmm of Utacamand, in the Nlla- 
giri mountains,' I heard much of an 'aboriginal race' 
living in the neighbourhood ; which, infanticidal and 
polyandrous, was said to be fast dying out 

I had long been curious to understand the mysterious 
process by which, as appears inevitable, savage tribes 
melt away when forced into prolonged contact with a 
superior civilisation. But, ignorant of all the languages 
of South India, I should have relinquished attempt to 
study the Todas, had I not the great good fortune to 
make the acquaintance of the Reverend Friedrich 
Mf.tz, of the Basel Missionary Society, who had spent 
upwards of twenty years in labours amongst the primi- 
tive tribes forming the inhabitants of the Nilagiris ; 
and who, in addition to being skilled in several Drdvi- 
dian dialects, was exceptionally practised in High 
Kanarese and Tamil. Above all, he was the only 
European able to speak the obscure Toda tongue. 

Mr. Metz most readily agreed to co-operate with me 
in strict enquiry into the condition of the Todas, and 

' Commonly called ' Ooiacamund, in the Nilghcrry hills ' ; it being the 
peculiar Anglo-Indian custom to style all mountains, hills. Thus the 
H imalayas are only hills, whilst in England, Ben Nevis and Snowdon are 



henceforth became my sole associate in ail expeditions 
amongst them — save one or two. 

It is the more proper and just that 1 should in this 
place render Mr. Metz the warmest acknowledgment 
of the very disinterested and important share he had in 
the undertaking, that there is so Utile in what I have 
written in these pages to recall his name. It was not 
only that his knowledge of Toda dialect was invaluable 
for minute and truthful investigation, but the personal 
respect in which he was held by the people, and the 
confidence they placed in his fidehty to them, obtained 
for us a more friendly welcome and complete exposure 
of their minds than would have been accorded had we 
been mere strangers. I must stale, however, that my 
friend is not, even in the slightest degree, responsible 
for any opinions I have expressed. 

A small Vocabulary, compiled and carefully revised 
by Mr. Metz, will be found as the groundwork of the 
last Chapter. It may be said, more entirely to consist 
of actual Toda words than any other existing. 

Our operations began with a census of a portion of 
the tribe, combined with an examination of each of 
the families that came before us. But in proportion as 
our work advanced, so did interest in the subject de- 
velop, until the scheme was entertained of enlarging the 
topic from its original design, so as to embrace ' a study 
of the manners and customs of a primitive race of 
man.' 

With this evolution grew also the desire so to de- 
scribe what I had seen, as to enable readers who could 
never have an opportunity of witnessing life amongst 



untmorea "races, to realise justly and without exaggera- 
tion, what it really is, and — by analogy — what it must 
have been In the pre-historic era, long ere ' Adam 
I delved and Eve spun,' before man Iiad much developed 
in manly qttalities. 

I have actually witnessed most of the scenes here 
described. Such of the remainder as are not otherwise 
authorised, I have compiled from direct narrative of 
the most reliable Todas. 

Whilst hoping, though not without some misgivings, 
that the ugly statistics collected with so much care, and 
the speculations advanced to account physiologically 
for the origin of obscure customs, may have some 
slight value, even to the savant, I am sanguine that 
the antique practices now brought to light, and the 
illustrations I have attempted of every-day life, may 
render the book acceptable to the general reader, I 
may say, that great and especial pains have been taken 
to render as large a portion of the work as the subject 
permits, attractive, and suited for ladies' reading. 

A few words of explanation are perhaps called for ; 
to account for my having devoted an entire chapter to 
the description of some of the first principles of phre- 
nology — a subject which is fully treated in standard 
works by acknowledged authorities. I wished primarily, 
to show the premises forming the basis for many con- 
jectures which otherwise would have borne too much 
the appearance of dogmatism, or that might have been 
misunderstood. Secondly, I desired to show for phre- 
nology, a marked practical value for ethnological pur- 
poses : and no single work containing, with clearness 



and brevity combined, so much information calculated 
to be serviceable to enquirers disposed to pursue the j 
phrenologic mode of enquiry into the nature of bar- 
barous races, which I have here faintly attempted ; 
I trusted that the chapter might be useful, in some sort, 
as a manual for ethnographers so circumstanced. 

But in this matter, as indeed throughout the book, I 
must trust very much to the lenient judgment of my 
readers ; if, as a solitary Indian, far away from contact 
with men of science, but fresh from the actual and 
impressive presence of ' nature's children,' in attempt- 
ing to work out for myself some of the vastly interesting 
unsolved problems of our day, I air some seemingly 
quaint ideas. TJie pttblic is concerned simply in i/uir 
truth. 

The publication of these results of investigations 
made two years ago, has been delayed through the 
impossibility of finding in a very hot climate, and in the 
intervals of official duties, leisure sufficient for com- 
pleting a subject demanding much thought and care. 

I beg to invite especial attention to the important 
contributions made by the eminent philologist and 
great Tamil scholar, the Rev. G. U. Fori;, D.D., at pre- 
sent Head Master of the ' Bishop Cotton' School at 
Bangalore. These will be found both in the form of 
foot-notes throughout this little work, and forming a 
distinct chapter at the end. The interesting and often 
most valuable derivations of Toda words given in these 
notes, have enabled me, in the absence of other evidence, 
to explain several customs and to work out some specu- 
lations that otherwise seemed quite incomprehensible. 



PREFACE. IX 

But for the linguist, I trust Chapter XXIX. will have 
especial attractions. 

To the Honorable Sir A. Arbuthnot, C.S., K.C.S.I., 
Secretary to the Government of Madras, I am greatly 
indebted, for having placed at my disposal, the records 
existing in the Revenue Department, on the subject of 
Toda infanticide. 

I am beholden to the skill of the distinguished 
artists, Messrs. Bourne and Shepherd, of Simla, and 
to Messrs. Nicholas and Curths, of Madras, for the 
photographs which decorate the book. These have 
been printed in carbon, by the Autotype Fine Art 
Company, 36 Rathbone Place, London. 

W. E. MARSHALL. 

Faizabad : 

2nd October y 1872. 



CONTENTS. 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 

I Meaning of the NameToda — Names of Clans — K61s, the Aborigines 
of India — Todas are DrSvidians — DrSvidians penetrate India and 
dispossess the K61 Race — Affinities of the D rflv id ians— Aryan Con- 
quest ; its Effects on the Kfiland Drdvidian Races — The mutual In- 
fluence of the KAl, Drividian, and Aryan Races on one another — 
Positions in India now held by the three Races — Positions in the 
Defckan of the Drividian Tribes — Affinities of the Toda Dialect — 
Last Migration of the Todas — Kaims and Kromlechs on the 
Nilagiiis — Are the Kaim-builders allied to the Todas ? 



CHAPTER II. 

PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

Contrast between Simple and Complex Races — Advantages in noting 
Groups of Organs— Necessity for studying Individual Organs— The 
Properties and Positions of Groups, and of the Organs in each 
Group— Effects of Siie and Quality in Brnin^Power — Two Varieties 
of Energy — Mutual Influence of the Oi^ans — Correlation between 
Organology, Temperament, and Bodily Structure— Description of 
the miiin Temperaments amongst Oriental Races 

CHAPTER III. 

PHVSIOLOCV OF THE TODAS. 

Table of Relative Proportions in the Toda Head — Scheme of number- 
ing Organs — No Skulls procurable — Individual Organs frequently 
assume Abnormal Proportions — Difference between the Sexes — 

L Calliper Measurements — Amativeness of Moderate Siie — Why 
should Form be singularly small ? — Physical Appearance of the 
Todas — Their Temperament — Largest and smallest Groups . 



\ 



Xll CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHARACTERISTICS. 

FACB 

Talking Voices— Modes of Salutation— Home Life— Frank and 
obliging Natures— Colour of the Skin— Tattoo Marks — Ornaments 
— Boys distinguished from Girls — Apparel— Toilette . . • 41 

CHAPTER V. 

THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 

The Todas a very ordinary People : the Interest they attract greatly 
due to Association — Habits and Manners free from Eccentricity 
— The Scenery of the Country : its Silence and Grace — A cool 
Morning grows to a Summer Day — ^Tasteless Toda . . .51 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE MAND. 

Todas a Pastoral Race — Definition of a Nomad— Todas migrate, but 
are not nomadic — The Mand or Village — Construction of Houses — 
Interior Arrangement of Houses — The surrounding Wall — The 
Cattle-pen — The Dairy or P^thchi— Typical Plan of a Mand— 
Selection of Village Sites— Names of Villages . . . .58 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE FAMILY. 

Parturition — Midwives — Confinements — Infanticidal Mother taken 
Red-handed— Name this Child — Men's Names — Nicknames— 
Women's Names — How Married People call to one another — List 
of Relationships 68 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FOOD. 

Diet— Ki^tu — Badaga and Kota Neighbours prey on the Todas — 
Todas give away Valuable Property — Not flesh-eaters— Ceremony 
of eating Buffalo-flesh — Don't drink Spirits — Children's Food — 
Family Meals — Grace before Meat — No Weapons of the Chase- 
No Variety of Uwt Stock • . , 78 



CHAPTER IX. 

SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 

Cause of Idleness of Primitive Races— Their Attributes^Toda 
Qualities, and Form of Cranium^The most primitive Form of 
Skull — How to judge of Cannibal Heads — Tylor, on the Develop- 
ment of the Human Race — Dolichocephali the naium) Inhabitants 
of warm Zones : Brachiocephali the Result of harsher Circum- 
stances — Endogamy and Dolichoeephaly — Why pure Brachioce- 
phali are not met with — Caste inimical to Advance — Brachiocephaly 
the Counterpoise to Dolichoeephaly— Correlation between Brachio- 
cephaly and Broad Shoulders 



CHAPTER X. 



Mode of taking Census — Census Table — Todas hide nothing but 
number of Cattle— Review of the Table — Crowding— Number of 
Todas— Vital Statistics-Does the Tribe increase, or is it dying out ? 95 



CHAPTER XI. 

FAMILY STATISTICS. 

Thedayapproachcs when the Nilagiris will not afford Support for the 
Todas — Occupations which the Todas might lake to — A little 
Education would give them a good Start in Life — Toda Males bear 
to Females the ratio of 100:75— The Cause of this Disparity be- 
tween the Sexes— A Male-producing variety of Man formed by 
Infanticide — Useful Family Statistics I 



CHAPTER XII. 



Prayers to Sun and Moon— The mysterious confused with Godhead 
— No clear Conception of a Supreme Being — The Use of a God — 
Toda Belief— Am nflr— Where situated— Sin, Punishment, little 
Gods, Spirits, Witchcraft— Toda Religious Belief, whence derived i 



XIV CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE BELL-GODS. 

FACE 

A Religion based on the Care of the Cow — Milk a Divine Fluid — ^The 
Cattle-bell a God— The Bell-cow— Her ancestral Line— The Bell- 
god— Installation of the Bell-cow— The Tiri^ri— The Sacred Herd- 
Bulls of the Herd — Sanctification of Bulls — ^Ag^ate Law amongst 
the Todas ; Female Succession for their Cattle — Antiquity of Bell- 
gods 128 



CHAPTER XIV. 

TIRlfeRI PRIESTS. 

The Paiai— The KavilAl— The Pilil is a God— The Peiki Clan termed ^ 

« Sons of God '—Duties of the Pil41 — No Mysteries— Sacred Nature ; 

of Priests — The PiUl becomes Man again — Purification for Holy 
Orders — ^The T{ide Tree ; its botanical Name and Distribution — ; 

The use of the TAde, an ancient Practice — The Pilil enters on his 
Duties 135 



CHAPTER XV. . 

PRIESTLY DUTIES. 

Pildl's daily Routine — Salutes the sacred Herd — Milks the Cattle- 
Libations to the Bell-gods — Names of Toda Gods — Does the con- 
ception of invisible Gods arise from deficient Organ of Form ? — 
Todas revere Light, not Fire- Who is the KdviUl ?— Pdl41 demon- 
strates that he is never touched — Milk held in religious regard — 
Pilil collects K{itu for his Mand . . 141 



CHAPTER XVI. 

THE TIRlfeRI. 

A Tirifiri Mand described— Names of Tiri^ri— We visit the Tiriari 
and see the Bell-gods— The holy Domain — The Priests are away — 
Who erected these upright Stones ? — ^The Priests return— A Bargain 
is struck—* Gods of our Fathers ' — * These be your Gods M ! . .146 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
THE £tud MAND. 



F Cu«oms or the Village Dairy or PAi I hchi— Duties of the PSIkarpJl 
—Important DifTcrence in the Duties of the Pllll and Paikarpil— 
The Tarvai— The inside of a Dairy— The Dairy of an fitud Mand 
is a Shrine— The Badagas tcnn it Mui Mand : why ?— Toda form 
of Oath I 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE FUTURE STATE. 

I Todas have no just Sense of a ruling Almighty Power — Belief in 
Eternity — The njtuial Causes of the Belief in a Future State- 
Future Punishment i 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE BOATU. 

FXxtemal Appearance of the Boath— Night Visit— Inside of the Boath 
— Where arc the Relics ? — The Boath an exceptional Curiosity — 
Speculations regarding it ; a Bethel ? connected with the Bothan 163 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE GREEN FUNERAL. 

The two Funerals described — Last Office to a dying Toda — The 
Corpse journeys to the Kcdu Mand — The Kfidu Mand described — 
Obsequies—' Dust to dust ' — Slaughter of Cattle — The Ashes of the 
Dead— Kotas remove the Carcasses of Cattle . « . . . . i 



CHAPTER XXI. 



The Burning of a Flute, Bow and Arrows— The Dance— Scene with 
the Sacrificial Cattle— Again ' dust to dust'- Catching the Cattle 
—The Sacrifice— The Cattle- bell— No Priest concerned in the 
Ceremonies — Sprinkling of blood — Final Burning of the Manes 
—The Kotas remove the dead Cattle 179 



CHAPTER XXII. 



RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 



Toda Religion, a. Development from a Malerial Nucleus— The Milk- 
giver an object of deep Reverence — Milkmen are Priests, then Gods 
— Todas have a bias in favour of Light as the manifestation of 
Divinity— Not idolatrous— Do not make Oiferings to a God — 
Believe in Transmigration — Callous on Demonolatry — Influenced 
in Religious Matters by other Races— Todas of Turanian Stage 
of Culture tSftJ 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

mFANTlCIDE. 

Infanticide probably, at some time, practised by evejy Race — Prime- 
val Man's early Difficulties — His Invention for restricting the Ex- 
pansion of his Race — Infanticide perhaps marks a Stage in human 
^ Progress — The Ancient Britons infanlicidal — Infanticide of 
Primitive Races a work of Love — Infanticide may be extinct 
whilst Statistics imply its continuance — A Dynamical Problem 
solved by the Todas — Infanticide the Crime of Weak Races ; of 
Dolichocephali . 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

POLYANDRV. 

Polyandry defined— Instances in various Parts of the World of Polyan- 
dry — Among the Celtic Britons — Laws of Inheritance — Re-marriage 
of Widows — Disgrace of being Childless — Desire for Children . 21 

CHAPTER XXV. 

POLYANDRY- MARRIAGE. 

Betrothal— Peculiar Nature of Dowry-Ask Papa— 'Wilt Ihou have 

Man?' — The Wedding-ring — Plurality of Husbands — Con- 
on of Progeny— Toda Expressions for Marriage— The Bow and 
Arrow in Weddings 2 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

POLYANDRY— MORA LI TV. 

Fickleness not necessarily an Attribute of Barbarous Man— Use of 
the Dower-^Dowry sometimes not paid— What then ?— Women's 



CONTENTS. XVii 

PACK 

Influence — Divorces are rare — Company behaviour very fair — No 
bachelors — Ultra Communistic — Not much known of private 
practices — No Foreign Blood apparent 216 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 

Causes ascribed by various Authors — Savage social Custom traced — 
Origin of the Family — ^Absolute and limited Communism — Infanti- 
cide — Unpremeditated origin of Polyandry — Phrenological descrip- 
tion of Polyandrists — Obstacles to Change of custom — Nature may 
be warped so as to place obstacles to rapid Change in the Character 
of Races 223 



• 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

SHADES OF EVENING. 

The people assemble — The cattle come home — Day's food — Prayer 
to the Setting Sun — ^The family retires to rest — Maternal aspect of 
Nature in Mild Climates . . « 233 



% 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

TUPA GRAMMAR. 

Outlines of Grammar — Vocabulary 239 

Appendix .271 



XVIU CONTENTS. 



TABLES. 



NO. PACS 

1. Relative Propoctions in Size of Organs and Groups of Organs 

in the Toda Head 30 

2. Sizes of Heads in both Sexes of the Todas, as. obtained by Cal- 

liper Measurements 34 

3. Census 96 

4. Statistics of Toda Families , . . . . .112 

5. Information deduced from ^ Statistics of Toda Families ' . .118 

6. To ascertain the * ages at which Toda women both commence 

and leave off Child-bearing ' 119 

7. To ascertain the * size of Toda Families ' : the * period during 

which the women bear children ' : and the ' number of 
years intervening between the birth of children ' . .120 

8. Compiled from ^ Statistics of Toda Families ' in order to ascer- 

tain the progress made towards checking Infanticide . .197 

9. Child marriages. Compiled from ' Statistics of Toda Families ' 222 



CONTENTS. XIX 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

NO. 

1. A Toda Mand Frontispiece, 

PACK 

2. Map of India 6 

3. Male Profile 32 

4. „ Full face 32 

5. Female Profile 32 

6. „ Full face 32 

7. Full-length figure 38 

8. A greeting , 42 

9. A Toda Armlet 48 

10. The land he lives in 51 

11. Three Toda houses (a plan) 63 

12. The Dairy (a plan) . , . *. 65 

13. A typical Mand 66 

14. Children tending cattle 129 

15. The Tiide or sacred bush. Weapons. Bow and Arrows 

used at weddings and funerals. Imitation buffalo horns . 138 

16. Adam and Eve 136 

17. The Plldl salutes the sacred cattle 142 

18. TheTirifiri — the ' Holy place ' or Toda sanctum . .146 

19. Man! D§r — * Gods of our Fathers ' 151 

20. Conical Temple (a plan) 164 

21. Conical Temple — Boath 164 

22. Mourning 177 

23. My informant 184 

24. Pentirfim— a Maiden of 14 years 207 

25. Nastufi, ' the little savage'; a married girl of 16 years . . .214 

26. Beliani 214 



XX CONTENTS. 



SCHEME OF TRANSLITERATION 



FOR 



THE TODA LANGUAGE. 



a 


j^ 


u in 


'cut' 


e 


^^ 


e 


in 


•'pen' 


& 


= 


au „ 


* caught ' 


& 


- 


a 


n 


'sale' 


• 

1 


= 


' V 


'pin' 


ei 


- 


• 

1 


n 


'pUe' 


I 


« 


ec „ 


*thee' 





- 


o 


» 


' potato ' 


a 


= 


00 „ 


*cook' 


6 


- 


o 


99 


'dote' 


d 


- 


oo „ 


* booth ' 


an 


- 


ou 


» 


'out' 








Oi » oi 


in 'oil' 








ch 


as 


ch in 


'niche' 


kh 


" 


kh 


in 


'khan 



Erratum.— Page 129, line 19, /or No. 15, read No. 14. 



A PHRENOLOGIST 

AMONGST 

THE TODAS. 



CHAPTER I. 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 

»Hg of tkt Name Toda — Names of Clam—KSls, the Aborigines of 
— Todas are Drdnidians^Drdvidians penetrate India, and dis- 
s the K6t Race— Affinities of the Drdvidians— Aryan Conquest; 
'S Effects on Ike KSl and Drdvidian Races— The mutual Influence of 
t KSl, Drdvidian, and kryan Races on one another— Positions in 
mtndia now held by the three Races — Positions in the Dekkan of the 
W^rdviHian Tribes^Affinities of the Toda Dialect — Last Migration of 
mUu' Todas —Kairns and Kromlechs on the Nilagiris — Are the Kttirn- 
m^ilders allied to the Todas T 

The people whose ancient customs and primitive habits chap, 
form the topic of these pages are called by the English \ - 
Todas ; but in their own language an individual of the tribe 
is Todan,' the plural being Todaru. 

The Badagas — of whom more hereafter — who for centuries 
past have lived in close proximity to the Todas, style them 
in the singular Todawanu,* and in the plural Todawani : 
from which, by abbreviation, Todawan or Todawar. Hence 

' Todan. Tamil, Toravam and Tflfam = a herd. And ihus Towvan or 
Tfiran ^herdsman. [Pope.] 

On this note, Mr. Meti remarks : 'As the d in Toda is not a lingual 4, 
bill dental, I do not believe the word means herdsman, as To^a in Old 
Tamil, 1 do not know the meaning of Toda with the dental d.' 

'Todawanu. Tora = a Aw-rf, Wanu = a/.!rw», Drdvidian. [Pope.] 



L 



2 HISTORICAL OUTLINE. . 

also have arisen other corruptions in EngUsh ; as To- 
* rawar, Thautawars, Todars. Todies, &c. Dr. Hunter gives, 
in his Dictionary,* a Toduva variety of the Todu language ; 
which is an error. 

The Toda tribe is divided into five clans, called Peiki, 
Pckkan, T6di, Kuttan, and Kenna.* The two first are very 
closely related, although they do not now intermarry ; the 
former having become what might be termed a Levitical clan. 
All of the remaining four freely marry amongst one another. 

We have very little positive information of the earliest in- 
habitants of India ; but, so far as the existing condition of 
evidence enables us to determine, they were of a race whose 
speech, having analogies to the extensive Hfl or K61 group 
of languages, 'derived from a source common both to them- 
selves and the Chinese.'* gives grounds for the belief that, 
at some extremely early prehistoric period, a migration of 
barbarians into India took place from over its north-eastern 
confines ' from the northern shores of the Indian Ocean and 
the Chinese Sea;'* thus seemingly earning for themselves the 
title of children of the soil, the aboriginal inhabitants of at 
least the central and north-eastern tracts of India. 

The physical type of this race, judging from the many 
distinct tribes of the family still to be found in various hill 
ranges, partook of the main features of the Mongol — in the 
hairless face, broad and short, the spreading unshapely nose, 
small eyes and high cheek-bones : and evidences of the 
people exist even in the southern portion of the Indian 
peninsula, both in the presence of this peculiar stamp of 
countenance, and apparently in the names of places and of 
natural features of the country. 

The Toda tongue is entirely apart from that of the K61 



* Hunier, ' Comparati 
India and High Asia." 

* Mr. Meti writes irn 
called T4r41; but 

» Hunter. 



; Dictionary of the Non-Aryan Languages of 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 



family. It is, indeed, now known with absolute certainty to CHAP. 

be a dialect of the development of Turanian speech styled ■ ^ — - 

Dravidian ;' the language of a group of primitive, illiterate, 
and perhaps warlike tribes who, between three thousand and 
four thousand years ago. migrated from tracts of Western 
Asia, and penetrating India, probably through Beluchistan 
and the natural water lines* of the country, filled all its 
western and southern districts, pushing before them, in some 
period of their advance, the various tribes of the K6I abo- 
rigines, some of whom, in slavery or menial conditions of life, 
survived as subjects of their conquerors. 

The Rev. Dr. CaldwelP has drawn attention to the remark- 
able circumstance that the closest and most distinct affinities 
to tiie speech of this race are those which have been dis- 
covered in the languages of the Finns and Lapps of Northern 
Europe and of the Ostiaks and other Ugrians of Siberia : and 
consequently that the DrAvidian is proved, by 'language 
alone, in the silence of history, in the absence of all ordi- 
nary probabilities, to be allied to tribes that appear to have 
overspread Europe before the arrival of the Goths and the 
Pclasgi, and even before the arrival of the Celts.' 

The characteristics of the Toda branch of this race, form 
the burden of the following pages. In the process of writing 

' A term which, applied by the Brahmans apparenlly in supercilious 
cn\-y and contempt of the people ihey could not conquer— the word 
Dr.'ivida implying the condition of being beyond the pale of the castes — 
is nuw used ethnologic ally, to designate that which has grown' to be a 
distinct race of man. 

' It would seem an absolute necessity, that primitive tribes should 
maintain the water-lines of the country they penetrated. If such be the 
case, noticing the geographical peculiarities of the west frontier of India, 
this Turanian race wouid have divided at the Desert of Scinde ; one 
branch following the course of the Indus and its tributaries to the Land of 
the Five Rivers : the other, turning south, would have both crossed and 
followed the many watercourses which drain into the Arabian Sea, on 
their way towards the Dckkan. 

» Caldwell, ' Comparative Grammar of the Drdvidian Languages.' 

I beg here to acknowledge my debt to the above valuable work for 
much of the infonnation 1 have incorporated in this chapter. 



4 HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 

■ of them, I have grown to the very strong conviction that the^ 
- people are a surviving sample of some portion of the Turanian 
race when in its very primitive stage. Without much exercise 
of the imagination, 1 can picture them the cotemporaries and 
neighbours, even perhaps the ancestors, of races of South- 
western Asia which have made a figure in early history. 
There is much of the ' blameless Ethiopian ' about them : 
something of the Jew and of the Chaldean in their appear- 
ance. 1 do not venture to hazard an opinion as to their 
cradle-land. It is safer to draw attention to what, judging by 
appearances and customs, are their possible ethnic affinities.'" 
At a period which historians have placed 300 or 400 years 
subsequent to this Turanian inroad, a branch of the Aryas— an 
Indo-European race of the Caucasian mould, speaking San- 
skrit — burst in on India from the north-west At first occu- 
pying that part of the country now known as the Punjab, 
these warlike colonists grew in the course of centuries into a 
conquering power, establishing empires on the Indus and 
Ganges after the fashion of lawless times, on the ruins of the 
K61 aborigines and DrSvidians, holding possession of the soil 
of various parts. And with a success so complete, that we 
find the Aryas ultimately occupying the whole of the arable 
tracts which in the main follow the course of those rivers, and 
form the northern base of the Indian Peninsula. As a con- 
sequence of this crushing conquest in the north-west, wc 
recognise Dravidian tribes in the inferior strata of the resident 
populace, and their blood mixed with that of even the 
highest Aryan castes. The Sikh bears a considerable though 
refined likeness to the Toda. And the province of Oudh has 
manifestly a large Drflvidian substratum. 

Warlike and gifted though this branch of the Indo-Euro- 
pean family has shown itself to have been, it does not appear 

" On the eve of sending this work to the press, 1 would beg again to urge 
my belief in the connection between the Drdviclian Toda and the Elhiop. 
Dr. Prilchard's ' Natural History of Man ' might be compared. 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 



have subjugated those Dravidians which colonised the CHAP. 

Dekkan ; but rather obtained sacerdotal influence amongst ■ ^ 

them through the means of a superior rehgious culture and 
civilisation, of which ambitious and wily Pundits, like monks 
in the barbarous days of Europe, were the exponents and 
pioneers, 

As might be expected, the three main races of India could 
not be located in the close contiguity which resulted of 
repeated conquest and subsequent expanding numbers, before 
their various religious customs, their languages, and even their 
blood) began to show their influence in reaction on one 
another. I'erhaps the most striking efl^ect of all these opera- 
tions, was that which the barbarous rites and beliefs of the 
inferior races exercised on the purer and more spiritual 
religious faith which originally distinguished the Aryas. 

In their desire to absorb all the subject and utterly savage 
tribes of the conquered inhabitants, the Brahmans opened the 
portals of their religion, and incorporated the many gods 
of the aborigines with the ancient deities of their Vedic 
pantheon. 

The pure Hindu religion, although thus actually debased 
in the process, probably became an instrument of even 
greater efficiency, when wielded by clever priests, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining an ascendancy over races in an extremely 
low stage of culture. And we recognise this truth in the 
great influence which Hinduism and the Sanskrit tongue, have 
obtained over the entire Indian Continent. 

In the case of the Dravidians ; it seems to me, on review- 
ing Toda religious practice, an extremely probable event. 
that a possible early contact with the Aryas, long before 
cither race entered India, rendered Sanskrit, especially in 
regard to all pious notions and reverent observance, influen- 
tial amongst them, even then. This is a very interesting 
consideration ; one which must render it difficult to deter- 
unc at what early period this Drividian branch of the 



^^Jin 



HiSTORiCAL OUTLINE. 



Turanian tree had first beer biassed through the superior 
• religious instinct of the Arya. 

If we consider that the many tribes of these three dominant 
races, brought into India the various habits, rehgious observ- 
ances, and dialects of the diverse tracts of Asia whence they 
emigrated. When we further reflect on the difl'erent results 
which must have ensued during their residence in the country 
of their adoption, from the contiguity of certain of them to 
the prt^rcssive Brahmanical race, with its refined and copious 
vocabulary, its elevated moral code, with idealised pantheon 
of heroes and heroines ; and the proximity of others to the 
carnivorous Kfll, his tutelary deities and bloody rites. Fur- 
ther, bearing in mind the isolation of tribes kept asunder by 
the lawlessness of the times, the pathless nature of the 
country, and the conservative nature of tribal barbarians ; — 
we can readily comprehend why DrSvidian tribes have now 
concreted into separate nationalities, whose dialects are 'dis- 
tinct though affiliated languages,'" and whose religion varies 
in every shade, from the simple but senseless, or perhaps 
cruel, observances introduced by original immigrants, to the 
complex rites of corrupted Hinduism. 

The accompanying sketch map of the Indian peninsula 
describes the position in the country which the Dr^vidians 
hold at the present day ; when, after their wanderings and 
their wars, the various tribes of which the race is composed 
had settled down, then expanded into important nations, 
speaking distinct dialects, of which the following are now 
highly cultivated ; — 



i. Tamil. 


iii. Kanarese. 


ii. Telugu. 


iv. Malaydlam. 




v. Tuluva. 


Three others, viz.. 




vi. Toda. v 


i. G6nd. vili. Ku or Khond. 




" Caldwdl. 



Sketrli Mapot'the 
INDIAN P£mNSUIA. 

,she"1nii luifalitv of 

EXISTING RACES 




i 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 7 

remain in their pristine barbarous state ; innocent even of CHAP, 
written characters ; and there are said to be several other — 
minor dialects or corruptions belonging to small sylvan 
families holding unimportant geographical positions in the 
DrAvidian area. 

Remnants of the ejected Kflls are shown on the eastern 
limits, and Aryanised peoples arc closed in on the entire 
northern boundary. 

The Rev. Dr. Pope, in his contribution to this book," gives 
it as his opinion that the Toda language was originally old 
Kanarese, and not a distinct dialect. He thinks that the 
language has dwindled to a mere skeleton, as a result of 
isolation and consequent degeneration of the people. 

The early Indian history of the Todas has been as com- 
pletely lost as that of the long protracted period which 
preceded their migration to the Dekkan. 

We know, indeed, with a tolerable degree of certainty, 
both from their own legends and from those of neighbouring 
tribes, that until the last few hundred years they inhabited 
a jungle tract of inferior hills situated between the Kanarese 
and Tamilian districts, in the direction of HasanQr ; which, on 
K. longitude Jj" 20' and N. latitude 11' 45' form portion of 
the Eastern Ghats. And that they then divided into two or 
more parts, of which one settled in a northerly direction, 
near KdlegSIl, and the other migrated or was driven in the 
direction of the Nilagiri Mountain;" the greater number 

" Vide Chapter XXIX., ' Outlines of the Tu4a Grammar.' 
At the lime of recording this opinion. Dr. Pope had not had oppor- 
tunity of perusing any portion of my descriptions of Toda life. Had he 
done so, it is possible he might have modified his views. I, who judge the 
Todas physically and through their antique customs and practices, fail 
lo discover any degeneracy in the pieople ; rather regarding ihem as not 
only without evidence of having been better, but with little appearance of 
having been materially different from what they now are, within any 
period whose length may be fixed or even approximated. 

'* Mr. Metz, who obtained this infomiaiion from the Todas, is my 
authority for thi< paragraph. 



HISTORICAL OUTLINk. 



settling on its very topmost plateau, where we now find them, 
whilst a small remnant, winding behind its north-western 
slopes, remained on one of the lower plateaus, called the 
Wynid. 

This modern place of Toda residence is an isolated moua-fl 
tain, upwards of seven thousand feet above sea level, upreared 
on E, longitude 76'" 45' and N. latitude 11° 20', amidst the 
plains of South India — the gigantic and sudden culmination 
of the minor mountain-chain system, called the Eastern and 
Western Ghats, which there meet. 

These, their last movements, having been very small and of 
minor importance, I have included their past and their present 
places of residence in one area, marked VI. on the map. 

Not only the summit of the Nilagiris, but the tops of the 
minor rounded eminences thereon, are studded with kairns, 
raised for the reception of ashes of the dead, by a race whose 
history has been so completely lost that not a tradition even 
of it remains. On the same plateau are also a few kromlechs, 
also many deserted circles of stones, situated near streams of 
running water; some manifestly constructed for pounding 
cattle, others, with equal certainty, not made for that purpose 
— being in exposed situations and having rocky beds. 

These erections undoubtedly do not belong to the Todas, 
who not only do not regard them with reverence, but assert 
that they were of a people antecedent to themselves on the 
mountain. Moreover they are found in many parts of the 
Indian peninsula and of Western India. But I may do 
service in drawing attention to points in which the cremation 
customs of this unknown race are those of the Todas, and to 
those in which they differ from them. 

In brief, we find, from relics exhumed from kairns, that 
their owners made use of the horse : that they practised 
agriculture, holding the buffalo in high esteem, and burying 
its bell with the manes of the deceased. We learn that they 
were acquainted with the use of the spear, bow and arrow : 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 

that their women wore simple jewelry, and that all tli 
implements, weapons and ornaments, whilst of a very prir 
live nature, were of designs extant, not only in India, but in 
this part of the country. 

We may safely deduce from the evidences of care manifest 
in the solidity of these stone receptacles, as well as from the 
positions in which we find them, both that these people held 
the memoiy of the dead in great respect, and their property 
alive to be their property when dead, and that their religious 
belief, as regards the future state, was connected by some line 
of thought with prominent natural features of the country. 

In many respects, viz, in the custom of cremation, the 
regard shown to buffaloes, the especial notice of its bell, the 
practice of burying weapons and personal ornaments, we 
shall find in due course, almost an identity with the obsequies 
and modes of thought now displayed by the Todas ; and 
Mr. Metz writes, concerning the Tod a faith; 'Their idea is 
that the spirits of deceased Todas, together with the souls 
of the buffaloes killed by their friends to accompany them 
to heaven and supply them with milk there, take a leap 
from Makurti Peak, as the nearest way to the celestial 
regions.' " 

The chief points of variance between the two peoples, 
consist in the evidences in the Kairn -builders, of a civilisation 
— implied in the practice of agriculture, and in raising stone 
constructions to contain their dead— --somewhat superior to 
that of the Todas. Regarding the matter of husbandry, 
the Todas could not be more backward in respect to these 
unknown Kaim-builders than tliey are behind all the tribes of 
Dravidians which at this very day surround and isolate them. 
A certain small degree only of civilisation is of necessity 
implied in the presence of simple implements of cultivation. 
: evidence of stone cemeteries, probably does not imply 



'* Men, 'The Tribes of the Nilghcrry Hills.' 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. 



|CUAP. tht: exercise of so much labour as would at first appear; for' 
what more likely — indeed, almost certain — than that each 
village or family erected one once for all for itself, and that it 
was filled in by degrees ? But it would express a method of 
disposing of the ashes, somewhat superior in completeness, 
refinement, and perhaps in depth of religious feeling, to that 
practised by the Todas, nothing more. No essential difference™ 
in race, but merely a tribal custom. | 

I would advance, therefore, the great likelihood of these 
Kairn-builders having been members of certain Turanian tribes 
of a similar stage of culture to our early Drlvidians; each of 
which would have brought with it the custom of the particular 
portion of Western Asia from which it migrated — this tribe, 
apparently, from a rocky and hilly region. 

It does not seem too much to insist that, in grand migrations 
of primitive races, not merely families of one spirited tribe 
would move together, but they would be attended or followed 
at intervals of time by other tribes dependent on or patronised 
by them ; not necessarily closely related, though perhaps near 
neighbours. All, however, moved by the same impetus : con- 
tinued pressure from without, a succession of famines at the 
door, or a vacuum to be filled up. 

Had the Todas died out a hundred years ago, but little 
remembrance of them would survive at this day. Similarly, 
these defunct races live solely in their imperishable monu- 
ments. 

In Chapter XIX., on the Boath, will be found the sugges- 
tion that that eccentric building may have belonged to the 
Kairn-builders. I do not wish to press the theory with undue 
vigour ; yet, if form is in a degree, a sort of index or ex- 
pression of the mind that adopts it, I thiuk that, in the unusual 
shape of roof (pointing upwards) in the Boath, may lurk a 
mental impulse in co-ordination with that which prompted 
them to place kaims on the top of hills; some superior 



HISTORICAL OUTLINE. II 

religious development of the tribe ; the root, I may term it, CHAP, 
of some such conception as leads us to the words : ^ — 



Nearer, my God, to Thee, nearer to Thee. 

Certain it is that the Todas, who grovel to the earth, show in 
their cremation custom, as in the architecture of their most 
holy place, a parity in lowliness as much marked as this pro- 
minence of individuality which we note in the Kaim-builders. 
I have apparently stepped out of my way to speculate on 
the remains of an unknown people, but my object has been 
to show a possible connection between the Kaim-builders and 
the Todas. 



12 PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



CHAPTER II. 

PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

Contrast between simple ami complex Races — Advantages in twting 
Groups of Organs — Necessity for studying individual Organs — The 
Properties and Positions of Groups and of the Organs in each Group — 
Effects of Size and Quality in Brain — Power—Two Varieties of Energy 
— Mutual Influence of the Organs — Correlation between Organology^ 
Temperament^ and Bodily Structure — Description of the main Tem- 
peraments amongst Oriental Races, 

CHAP. In the practice of phrenology amongst a civilised people, 
^\' __. more especially in one which is — like the English for example 
— the resultant breed of several distinct races, which though 
intimately mixed have never completely amalgamated and 
fused into a single type ; an apparently endless variety of 
combinations of organs and temperaments is met with, suf- 
ficient to tax the utmost sensitiveness to perception of varieties 
and experience of character, to decipher and analyse. In such 
circumstances, amongst such races, ability to estimate the 
exact size of each separate faculty, and its value relative to 
the whole mass of the cranium : to understand the influence 
of each mixed-temperament upon that complicated headpiece, 
and to take into just consideration each one of the many 
circumstances that would influence its activity, is absolutely 
essential to success. 

But in the examination of primitive tribes, particularly one 
which ftaving long practised endogamy — or the habit of uniting 
in wedlock solely within its own community — is uniform in 
appearance, we escape most of these difficulties. Nothing per- 
haps marks the difference in cranial appearance, between savage 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 15 

and civilised races, more than the complexity in variety of CHA 
temperament, the numerous shades of capacity and shape of _ 
brain, and the many degrees of sizes in oi^ans amongst the 
latter, as compared with the extreme simplicity and uniformity 
of the former. 

Visit one of these very primitive endogamous tribes, and 
we at once find ourselves in the presence of a crowd of indi- 
viduals all of the same type, whose temperaments are in their 
least complex forms, the general size and configuration of 
whose skulls is very uniform and easy to read, whose figure, 
voice, and carriage, are similar, and whose circumstances of 
daily life, whether they be the cause or the effect, or the joint- 
cause and effect of this similarity, are throughout alike ; who 
in fact differ in outward appearance only in modifications — 
generally slight — of a few single organs. 

They present scarcely more differences in appearance and 
character than any one dog does from any other of the same 
kennel of hounds. 

For general ethnographic purposes therefore, in which 
research would probably be limited in its aim to determining 
a certain few specific points; as for instance the relation of a 
given tribe to any other rude stock of man, or the acquisition 
of such knowledge of tribal idiosyncrasy as would afford the 
key to its management and education, a study of the physiog- 
nomy and powers of the main groups of cognate faculties, by 
which the elementary cranium of the savage acquires its dis- 
tinguishing form, combined with observation of other external 
evidences — as size in mass of head, simple national tempera- 
ment, as illustrated by physique : with voice and habits of 
Hfe^will, whilst affording us much of the evidence obtainable 
during lifetime, also give the information necessary for learn- 
ing eariy conditions of the human race, before the brain has 
acquired the great diversity in development and the ampli- 
tude in convolution which must accompany advance from 
absolute savagery — or extreme primitiveness — towards the 



14 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



CHAP, superior stage, that of barbarism,' At this point of progress, 
the study of character growing involved and complicated, by 
reason of the subtle influences which fine nervous conditions 
exert on the form of the brain, a more minute record of the 
s,\zesoi single organs becomes essential, more particularly if one 
desires to utilise phrenology to the more advanced ethnographic 
study, for which the science is peculiarly adapted, viz. to trac- 
ing the correlation between, the progressive growth of races, 
and the development of tlieir skulls at corresponding sras of 
advance. 

If one wished to ascertain the true type of the English 
character — supposing there to be a type, and that it could be 
found — it certainly could not be even approximated, except 
by the analysis in character of a vast number of individuals 
of the race. But an average of ten of each sex would give us 
all we should care to know of the simple Toda. 

With the view of enabling such of my readers as are willing, 
to follow me into the phrenolc^ic mode of studying traits and 
customs of early races, 1 here give * briefly and concisely the 
attributes of each single organ and of each of the groups into 
which the faculties have been collected, as they would be 
exhibited, not so much in the conduct of civilised man, as in 
that of the same creature when acting under the inferior im- 
pulses of his primitive organisation. 

The capacity of the following organs and groups being 
described as if they were each large, their action wlicn small 
must be judged by supposing a proportionate absence of mani- 
festation. 



' Yet all barbarians have not been savages. The savage state is an 
energetic stage of barbarism, through which all races— especially so those 
who are natives of the torrid lones — do not pass, 

This subject is further prosecuted in the Ch.ipler on ' Savage Antitype.' 
" 1 beg to acknowledge the advantages 1 have acquired in the com- 
pilation of the following pages from the perusal of Professor Bain's 
' The Study of Character," and Mr. Fowler's 'Synopsis of Phrenology,' 
in addition to the standard works of Mr. George Combe and others. 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 15 

Group A. — Concentrative. 
Constituent organ, 
I. CoHcentrativeness. 

This group has but one organ. Centripetal ; it affects every 
L faculty in the head by imparting to it continuity of thought 
\ and feeling, enabling it to concentrate the attention on one 
I object, as contrasted with a desultory tendency. Thus it is 
I an important element in steadiness of character, presence of 
mind, and good memory. It gives powers of self-abstraction. 
It impels to conservativism, abhorring change. It adds to 
the power of the will, by prolonging the sensations. Com- 
bined with Group B. it probably originated the belief in a 
future state, and suggested the desire for pyramids and 
y. mummies. 

A steady voice marks this Group. 

Position and form. Creates a fulness in the back of the 
I head, between Groups B and D. 

Group B. — Domestic. 
Constituent organs. 
. Amativemss. Gives desire for the companionship of 
[ the opposite sex. An element in gallantry. Tends to general 
I indecency. 

3. Philoprogenitiveness. Is the faculty which primarily 
Igives the love of a parent for its young whilst in the weak 
rand defenceless state. Thence general fondness for the 
I young and weak of all ages. 

4, Adhesiveness. Creates a desire for friendship apart 
from considerations of sex. Hence gregariousness and clan- 
nish ness. 

I Group B. Composed of the domestic and gregarious pro- 
pensities. It impels to marriage ; and in its love of children, 
fondness for the opposite sex, desire for friendship, regard for 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



<HAP. the dead, and love for the family or home, imparts the con- 
stituents of a warm-hearted disposition. 

Low and tender notes are the expression of this Group. 
Position and form. Causes elongation and fulness in the I 
middle and lower portion of the back of the head. 

Group C. Invigorating. 
Constituent organs. 

5. Combntivtfiess. Occasions opposiveness and willingness 
to meet physical danger ; is therefore a main element in 
active courage and fortitude. Likes close fighting. 

6. Destmctivencss. Prompts to overcome difficulties by 
exertion, and gives the energy required. Tends to acts of 
revenge and cruelty, to suicide, sanguinary rites and canni- 
balism. Suggested the idea of perpetual punishment. Is 
accompanied by violence of temper. Believed to give forti- 
tude to bear physical pain. 

7. Secretiveness. Enjoins secrecy and silence. Gives the 
main element of tact, finesse, cunning, and capacity to hide 
one's own feelings, with skill to penetrate the designs of others. 
Tends to distrust, duplicity, and treachery. Combined with 
Destructiveness, enjoys the act of torture and refinements 
of cruelty. In war would be jaartial to ambushes and per- 
haps night attacks ; in religion would practise mystic ritea. 

S. Acquisitiveness. Occasions desire generally. Gives 
talent for accumulation. Tenacious, it is opposed to com- 
munism. Tends to rapacity and theft. 

g. Alimentativcness. Is the organ which gives discrimina- 
tion in the flavour of food, and fondness for variety in diet ; 
tends to gluttony. Combined with Destructiveness, demands 
flesh and stimulants ; and, under exciting circumstances, 
prompts to cannibalism. When combined with a high 
coronal region, is also very partial to sweets. 

10. Constructiveness. Creates talent for building and con- 
trivance. Gave men houses, implements, forts and weapons. 



I 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 17 

Group C. Gives impulses to overcome difficulty of every 
nature, and to subdue. To provide by action for the daily 
animal wants of self and — in combination with Group B— of 
family. Hence it Imparts vigour, skilful efficiency, and 
impetus to the whole character, by stimulating the other 
faculties. When in excess, the character tends to treachery, 
avarice, gluttony, and general ferocious habit. 

Harsh low tones express the activity of this Group. 

Position and form. Gives breadth and fulness to the 
sides of the head, immediately around and in front of the 
ears. When Destructiveness is very lai^e, the holes of the 
ears are placed low with reference to the line of the eyebrows, 

Group D. Personal. 

» Constituent organs. 

11. Sfi/-esteem. Gives self-regard and pride. Tends to 
self-reliance. Is fond of power. Sensitive to personal po- 
sition. Enamoured of freedom. 

12. Loiv of approbation. Desires to please. Vain. Fond 
of ornament. Sensitive to outside opinion. Tends to courtesy 
and the use of flattery. 

13. Firmness. Gives capacity for pursuing a line of conduct, 
when unopposed. Is the main element in decision of cha- 
racter. Apt to decide too soon. Tends to obstinacy. 

Group D supplies will and self-confidence, and gives per- 
sonal motives, as pride, vanity, and perseverance, tending to 
action on account of self or^ — in combination with Group B — 
of family interests. Connected with Group E, it assumes an 
elevating and ennobling character, with a hatred of tyranny 
and de.sire to protect. Combined with Groups A and E, gave 
mainly the conception of Jehovah to the Jews. 

The voice of this Group is firm and measured. 

Positioti and form. Creates an elongation, and fulness of 
ind around the pole of the head, whence the hair radiates. 



Group E. Moral. 
Constituent organs. 

14. Cemscientionsness. Gives love of truth, and of whal 
is honest, just, right or faithful. Gives earnestness and sin 
plicity to character. Gives the appearance of truth even t 
falsehood. Is apt to be harsh and exacting. Tends to au: 
terities. asceticism, and general self-sacrifice. 

15. Veneration. Desires to pay respect ; raises and mulU 
plies objects of worship ; prompts to religious service, 
nature of rites and sacrifices being dependent on the combw 
nations made with other organs, as Amativeness, Destructivi 
ness, Hope, Conscientiousness. Tends to slavishness, 

16. Nope. Gives sanguine feelings, supporting and e& 
couraging the belief in a future state, and inciting to acts b 
which it may be attained. Leads to idleness. Is a great" 
element in the gambling spirit. 

17. Benevolence. Leads to kindness, liberality, and mercy. 
Its impulse is, to give ; thus tending to prodigality. 

tS, Cautiousness. Affords the desire to act with care and 
circumspection, and to provide for dangerous contingencies. 
If not coupled with Combative ness, tends to cowardice. 

Group E. Creates virtuous sentiments, emotions, and 
duties of a sincere, generous, hopeful, and reverential nature. 
Combined with Amativeness and with Group C, religious 
action degenerates into the performance of sensual and cruel 
rites. In combination with Group D, it partakes of a per- 
sonal nature ; Group F supplying it with an element of 
romance, poetry, or superstition ; and Groups G, H, and I 
with system and logic. 

Soft and rich tones are the natural expression of this group. 

Position and form. Gives fulness, height, and an arched 
appearance to the whole crown or roof of the head. 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



Group F. Refining. 



CoNStitiimt organs. 

19. Imitation. Copies sounds, actions, forms, thoughts. 
By perpetuating usage, preserves results of progress. An 
element in all arts. Induces men to follow a lead. 

20. Wonder. Is interested in the unseen or unusual. Tends 
to superstition. Gives credence in gods, spirits, ghosts, and 
witchcraft. Is a source of myths and legends. Exaggerates, 
Leads to investigation and to gossip. 

21. Ideality. Loves the beautiful. Gives grace to all con- 
ceptions. Partial to ornament. Is a bardic element, and 
gave gods to the Aryas, 

Group F. The refinement of the human race, or its pro- 
gress beyond the material, owes its growth to the impulse 
given both to morals and the intellect by the imaginative, 
inquiring, speculative, inventive qualities of this group. 

Position and form. Causes breadth and fulness of the 
head, from the top of the temples to the forepart of the crown. 

1^^ 22, Wit. Notices incongruity. Is a main element in the 
sense of the ludicrous. Gives suppleness, discrimination, and 
resource to the intellect by presenting various sides of a 
question. Assists in caricaturing. 

23. Causality. Observes the just relation between cause 
and effect. Acts with reason and judgment. Tends to ex- 
cessive refinement in logical conception. 

24. Comparison. Notices resemblances. Reasons by ana- 
logy. Is a source of parables and proverbs. Assists in 



Group G. Reflective. 
Constituent organs. 



30 PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

creating gods, and fashioning idols and symbols generally. 
Gives nicknames. 

Group G. By its evolutionary powers of thought and 
reason, by its capacity for perceiving the connection between 
cause and effect, and for dividing truth from absurdity, is 
rendered not only competent to superintend the operations of 
all the other groups — leading them to act with judgment — but 
places them in a position to realise the true connection of all 
the parts of the universe. When this group is well developed, 
man has long left the savage stage. 

Position and form. Gives height, fulness, and breadth 
the upper part of the forehead. 



,, (Perceptive. 
Group H.I^ 

(Dynamical. 

Constituent organs. 



eveiopea, ^^h 
readth toi^^f 



25. Language. Gives to every faculty, power of expressing 
itself by signs or words. Articulates, Tends to garrulity. 

26. Eventuality. Observes movements, events, and mus- 
cular expressions. Gives an inquiring nature, with much of 
intuition. Impulsive. An element in all dances. Gesticulates. 

27. Time. Notices lapse of time. Gives cadence in song 
or dance. Tends to periodic celebrations. 

28. Tunc. Observes quality, succession, and harmony in 
tones of sound. Is an element in singing, and chief organ 
in musical composition. Prompts to invention of musical 
instruments. 

Group H. Contains such faculties as obtain practical 
knowledge through observation of movement. Has great 
power of expressing ideas. 

Position and form. Creates fulness, breadth, and square- 
ness to the middle- horizontal zone of the forehead, and gives 
prominence to the eyes. 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



ConsHtiient organs. 
Gives conception of numbers, and power to 



important element in 
Tends to economy and 



29. Number. 
alculate and compute values. Is 

'the talent for commerce and barter. 
to love of money. 

30. Order. Notes method in the relative position and 
succession of things. Gives neatness, and fondness for dress. 

31. Colour. Perceives colours, the quality and harmony of 
their shades. Renders the sight of flowers pleasing. Gives 
colour in dress. 

32. Weiffftt. Gives sensibility in matters of weight and 
lightness, stability and resistance ; as in the balance or poise, 
the touch, degree of force to be used. Gives dexterity in 
"mental processes. Is fond of glitter. Is a source of skill in 
many games, as riding, and throwing weapons. Suggested 
the shape of the Pyramids. 

33. Locality. Takes cognisance of the relative position of 
objects. Gives coup £ail. Is fond of travelling ; combined 
with large Eventuality, and deficient Conccntrativeness, Ac- 
Buisitiveness, and Order, tends to a vagrant life. 

34. Individuality. Notes the existence of objects, without 
Igard to their properties or modes of action. 

35. Form. Judges of form; aids in making idols, hicro- 
jdyphs. and weapons. Joined with Size, Weight, and Com- 

uison, gives Judgment in the useful qualities of animals. 

36. Sise. Estimates size. Takes cc^nisance of space. 
»metric Is necessary in projecting missiles at unknown 



L 'Group I. Is constituted of such faculties as obtain practical 
wledge through noting statistics ; as material objects, 



22 PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

facts, places, and numbers, with their physical properties and J 
mutual relations. 

Position and form. Causes protrusion, breadth and square- I 
ness of the whole ridge of the forehead on which the eyebrows^! 
grow ; forming what is termed ' deep-set eyes.' The distance.! 
from the hole of the ear to the forehead is long. 

It is not to be expected that the precise same collection of a 
organs as I have included in each group will meet with.1 
universal approval. It must remain a matter of opinion f 
whether certain faculties included in one cluster should not 1 
more properly belong to another, owing to the circumstance 
that organs often possess qualities partaking somewhat of the 
nature of one or more of those immediately adjoining them. 
Thus, Wit may by some be held a reflective faculty; by others, 
to be more imaginative. And with much appearance of 
truth. Cautiousness, whilst acknowledged to be eminently 
conducive to morality, may yet be esteemed a propensity. ■ 

Whilst adopting from Mr. Fowler* the idea of grouping'* 
organs together, I have yet been induced to make certain 
modifications from the groups he formed, guided by personal 
observation of the forms which — as I think I notice — the skulls 
of simple races actually assume. Prolonged study alone of 
such people, in various stages of their early culture, will 
demonstrate with any degree of certainty, the exact mode and 
succession by which man's cranium expands, unfolds, or 
blooms ; but assuredly that study will well repay all trouble 
that can be bestowed upon it. 

It is now universally admitted that, other conditions being 
equal, size of brain — the organ of the mind— is a measure of 
power in its manifestation, as in that of all other or;jans of the 
body. Professor Bain writes, 'Just as largeness of muscle" 
gives greater strength of body as a general rule, so largeness 

' Fowler, ' Synopsis of Phrenology.' 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 2J 

■of brain gives greater vigour of mental impulse.'* 'The causes 
which modify the effects of size, are constitution, or quality, - 
health, exercise, excitement from external objects, and in 
some cases the mutual influence of the organs.'* In fact, 
' quality is as important as quantity, whether in nerve, muscle, 
or any other portion of the animal structure.'* What holds 
true of the whole is equally applicable as regards its com- 
ponent parts; hence, size of any organ, or of any group of 
oTgnns,h,c<steris paribus, a. measure of its or their capacity to acL 

Power is the product of size and quality. Ener^ and 
rapidity being results of size and quality, combined in 
different proportions. 

In studying the subject of energy in character, we should be 
careful to make a marked difference between that nature of 
vigour which arises from a brilliant temperament combined 
with well -developed Destructiveness and Combativeness, and 
that which is the result of the fine temperament acting with 
those organs small. The fofmer works full power ; actively, 
enei^etically, and with strength rising in proportion to the 
obstacles it meets, and lasting into advanced years. The 
latter shows the greatest brilliancy in positions where least 
opposition is met with ; and its energy being very largely 
dependent on the state of the nervous system, the vigour of 
youth and health is often early supplanted by indolence. 
_ It must be remembered, when judging of the joint action of 
two or more organs, that they habitually exert a mutual 
influence, tending to modify the mode in which both operate. 
But that at times they may act individually or separately 
according as one or other may be under the influence of ex- 
citing causes. Thus, Benevolence and Destructiveness when 
in unison, may give either active energy in doing a kind act, 
and in overcoming obstacles that may intervene between its 

' Bain, ' The Senses and Ihe Intellect.' 
' G. Combe, ' Elemenis of Phrenology.' 
* Bain, ' The Senses and the Intellect' 



. 24 PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

performance ; or they may operate to modiry desire foi^ 
- revenge. On the other hand, if acting apart, the head would 
at one time be influenced by bloodthirsty desires, and at 
another by kindly motives. 

Important constitutional qualities are to a certain extent 
indicated by Temperament ; regarding which, although we have 
very much to leam as to its origin, modes of action, and 
precise effects in the economy of our system: yet, judging 
from the analogies nature continually presents to our con- 
sideration, in which — as an illustration — we observe the con- 
cord between the habits of birds of prey and the shape of 
their skull, beak, talons, and general configuration as con- 
trasted with the inoffensive character and forms of the pigeon ; 
I hold tile belief— which can become illusionary only when 
hawk's talons are met allied with pigeon's brains — that an inti- 
mate connection, more close than we perhaps generally appre- 
hend, will be shown with the advance of morphology and 
physiology, to exist through links of simple cause and efTect, 
between the shapes which portions of the brain assume, and 
the temperament which results from certain conditions and 
relative proportions of our physical structure. 

The study of temperament has hitherto been mainly con- 
ducted by examination of its effects in complex civilised life : 
but much advantage might accrue to our stock of knowledge, 
if the subject was prosecuted amongst isolated wild tribes. 
The conditions of their lives would afford many opportunities 
of watching the effects on negative as well as on positive 
developments of mind, of temperaments in various simple 
and healthy forms. ' There may be one ' organ of the 
body ' vigorous and all the rest weak ; one vigorous, the rest 
average ; two vigorous and all the others weak ; none prepon- 
derating, and all good, all middling, or all bad ; and so on 
throi^h endless combinations.'' 

At present there is a seeming antagonism between organ- 
' Bain, ' The Senses and the Intellect.' 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 



25 



ology and temperament, which further information might 
perhaps dissipate. For instance, the Fibrous combined with a . 
brain deficient in the propensities and power of Will, or the 
Sanguine with small Hope and desire for motion, would seem 
to be anomalies. In both instances, tlie desire for action 
which the temperament brought, would not find correlation 
with harmonious mental desires. 

■ The following extracts from Mr. George Combe's inter- 
esting work, ' Phrenology applied to Painting and Sculpture,' 
affords some examples of his opinion as to the relation 
between size in particular regions of the brain and particular 
characteristics of the body. ' There is a correspondence 
between the thorax and abdomen and brain. It is rarely 
that a large anterior lobe and narrow base are combined with 
large lungs and a large abdomen. And equally seldom that 
a lai^c base and small anterior lobe are combined with small 
lungs and a small abdomen.' Again, "There is, generally 
speaking, a decided character pervading the whole corporeal 
frame of man, which bears a relation to the size, form, and 
condition of the brain. And every part of the visible surface 
expresses the quantity as well as the quality of the mental 
power which animates it.'* 

I have observed a marked connection between the brachy- 
cephalous head — so termed by ethnographers — and broad 
shoulders. Although from exceptional causes the rule will 
not always hold good amongst individuals of a vtixed race, 
yet an inspection of ma.sses of men of the dolichocephalic type 
of nation, will convince most people that they cannot campare 
in width of shoulder with the brachycephali.* 

A correlation may be noted between the high coronal region 
and sloping shoulders. 

A connection between Aiimentativeness and the organs of 
digestion is evident. When the faculty is small, the abdomi- 

' G. Combe, ' Phrenologj' applied 10 Painting and Sculplure.' 
* This subject is continued in Chapter W. 



26 



PHRENOLOCrCAL BASIS. 



CHAP, nal rtigion will be small also ; and be generally accompanied 
"— T — ■ by tendency to tlie maladies which arise from weak powers in 
that region. When large, the converse may with equal cer- 
tainty be looked for. 

The following are the outward indications by means of 
which the four main temperaments may be recognised 
amongst dark races, and their effects on the working qualities 
of body and brain. 



The Temperaments. I 

Fibrous. 

Physiognomy. A large lean frame of compact bone 



ind 



I 



hard spare muscles. Thorax broad rather than deep. Ab- 
domen moderate. 

Feet and hands broad and thick. Strong fingers and stout 
nails. 

Teeth strong, broad, yellow, and blunt-edged. 

Bold features : nose a coarse aquiline. 

Eyes bright and dark ; the whites not clear. 

Skin coarse and hairy. 

Hair coarse and curly. 

Brain. The mind energetic, but not vivid : with power ot 
long continued action, conspicuously so when ' mental exertion 
involves the muscles, which happens in such avocations as 
military command, teaching, speaking.''" 

This temperament, from the excess of muscular energy over 
nerve, forms an excellent combination with the nervous ; the 
amalgam, where the brain is large, giving great intellectual 
activity joined with powers of mental and bodily endurance. 
Where uncombined with the nervous temperament, and the 
brain is small, the energies show best when employed in ope- 
rations requiring physical strength and moderate intelligence. 

Muscular action. Sedate. 

" Bain, 'On ihe Study of Character,' 



PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 27 

Nervous.*' 

^Physiognomy. A slight frame, with small bones and mus- 
nall thorax and abdomen. 

Feet and hands narrow. Taper fingers and thin, often 
paper nails. 

Teeth very white, and frequently sharp-edged. Apt to be 
crowded together, and to decay early. 

Refined features : nostrils long, narrow, and thin. 

Eyes bright and often brilliant. Whites very clear. 

Skin thin, delicate. Body nearly free from hair. 

Hair on the scalp, close, silky, and nearly straight, but 
often very long. 

Brain. All the senses very acute. The mind impressible, 
clear, active, vivid or intense, but fatigues easily. Expression 
eminently intelligent and sensitive, Great definition of organs, 
arising from leanness of the skull. 

This temperament, from the excess of nerve, 'delights 
in mental emotion and intellectual pursuits.' '* But where 
the brain is intrinsically small, the energies waste themselves 
in excitement about trifles. It gives what is termed 'blood,' 
and tends to degenerate into ' want of bone,' with its concomi- 
tant, deficient strength. 

Muscular action. Rapid and sharp, often confused and 
hurried. 



Physiognomy. A well developed handsome form, with full 

rounded, rather than hard muscles. Thorax deep rather than 
broad. Abdomen full. Sternum protruding. 

Hands and feet well shaped, with high instep. Healthy 
looking,. pink, rounded nails. 

" Perhaps the inhaliitaiit of Bengal Proper, in the neighbourhood of 
Calcutta, affords the best nnlional example of this temperament. 
" G. Combe, ' Elements of Phrenology.' 



28 PHRENOLOGICAL BASIS. 

CHAP. Teeth long, strong, rather yellow, blunt-edged. 
— f ' -»^ Nostrils broad and rather open. 

Eyes open, ardent. Whites often blood-shot. Pupils blue 
amongst some races. More generally hazel. 

Skin moderately fine, warm, often rich coloured and ruddy. 

Hair : plenty of beard and whisker, of moderate firmness, 
wavy and flowing. 

Brain, Vigorous, vivacious, ardent, enthusiastic, where the 
interests, emotions, or passions are engaged ; otherwise apt to 
be indolent. Works best when business and physical pleasure 
combine. This temperament, with its vigorous circulatory 
system, combines well with the nervous and fibrous tempera- 
ments ; the three together giving activity, strength, and 
buoyancy both of mind and body. But * combined with much 
of the lymphatic, it is unfavourable to mental manifestations, 
and requires almost constant exercise in the open air.'** 

Muscular action. Buoyant and active. 

Lymphatic, 

This temperament is rarely to be met with amongst dark 
races. But Mr. Combe describes its appearance in western 
nations as follows : — * The lymphatic temperament is dis- 
tinguishable by a round form of body, softness of the mus- 
cular system, repletion of the cellular tissue, fair hair, a pale 
clear skin, and a hazy sleepy eye. It is accompanied by 
languid vital actions, and weakness and slowness in the 
circulation. The brain, as a part of the system, is also slow, 
languid, and feeble in its action, and the mental manifesta- 
tions are proportionally sluggish and weak.'** 

*' Fowler, * Synopsis of Phrenology.* 
" G. Combe, ' Elements of Phrenology.' 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



CHAPTER III, 

PHVSIOLOGV OF THE TODAS. 

Tabu of Relative ProportioHs in the Toda Head — Sckeitu of Humberiag 
Organs^No Skulls procurable— Individual Organs Jreguenlly as-iume 
abnormal Proportions— Dijirence betwern the Sexes — Calliper Mea- 
surements — Amaliven^ss of moderate Size — IVky should Form be 
singularly small? — Physical Appearance oj the Todas — Their Tem- 
perament—Largest and smallest Croups. 

The Table No. i. which represents the relative proportions chap. 
in size of organs and groups of organs in the Toda head, is -,_ . ' ,■- 
the recorded result of thirty-six manipulations in each of 
eighteen nearly unselected adults of both sexes. In inviting 
some degree of confidence in these investigations, it is neces- 
sary for me to disclaim pretensions to their absolute accuracy ; 
for many circumstances which need scarcely be here enume- 
rated, including the actual difficulty in obtaining satisfactory 
results in investigations amongst very thick tangled hair, 
oppose themselves to the practical attainment of such a result, 
however desirable. Yet, confident in my desire to obtain a 
correct record of the form of the savage skull, by maintaining 
as far as possible, freedom from bias or preference, I think 
that the averages at least, both of organs and of groups, may 
be recommended as containing as much of truth as may be 
obtained under like circumstances by any process of analysis 
with which science is at present acquainted. 

The unvarying type of the Toda head, and the extra- 
ordinary uniformity of its general size, suggested to me both 
the possibility and the advantage of the principle adopted 
in recording these measurements ; of referring them all to one 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



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PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



I g . 8 I 
l|gll III 



|i 



-fclHi- ICO 



32 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 

CHAP, standard by giving one number (7) for the largest, and one 
*— T-— ' number (i) for the smallest oi^an in every head, Thus each 
number in the table not only indicates the relative proportion 
which a certain organ bears to every other faculty in the 
same head, but in all the crania of both sexes throughout 
the tribe. In pursuing this scheme, not only has a fair 
amount of accuracy been maintained in the observations, but 
a trustworthy average has been recorded for each organ, and 
thence — by similar process — of each group in the Toda skull. 
It will prove an interesting and valuable practical result, if 
by means of this process, we may be enabled to form a really 
true estimate of savage type, and learn the precise character 
and capabilities of any individual wild tribe. 

Although amongst these figures the proportions of some of 
the ablest' and most respected members of the tribe are 
represented, it will be observed how similar the main forms 
of their skulls are, and that variations are confined entirely to 
single organs whilst the groups maintain a surpassing uni- 
formity of appearance. 

Two portraits — in side and full face — of a man and a 
woman, photographed to scale, are here given, by which some 
means arc afforded of comparing the descriptions which are 
given in these pages with examples of ' real life,' and of 
enabling my readers to supply any other processes of esti- 
mating character from forms of crania, or of usefully classi- 
fying races that may be known to them. 

It is unfortunate that no member of either sex could be 
induced to submit to having the head shaved. As the 
practice of cremation is the universal mode of disposing of 
the dead, the portraiture of a head without hair or of a 
skull without flesh could by no mamier of chance be ob- 
tained. The male subject in the picture was selected solely 

' This reminds one somewhat that the emperor of the Lilliputians was 
' taller, by almost the breadth of my nail, than any of liis court, which 
alone la enough to strike an awe into his beholders.' 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



33 



I account of being one of the baldest men of the tribe, 
though his head is also above the average. The woman — ■ 
ivell. beauty has charms ! She was so good-natured or so vain 
as to put her hair into ' curl-papers ' for me ; but she was 
photographed as she now appears because the curls formed 
artificial 'bumps' interfering with my purposes. 

In other parts of this book the portraits of two women will 
be found who had been chosen on account of unusual deve- 
lopment; No. 25, 'The Little Savage,' has the largest 
Veneration, and No. 16, Aw, the largest Firmness I saw. 

Perhaps the most noteworthy information which a close 
scrutiny of the figures of Table No, 1 affords, is that not- 
withstanding all the members of this little tribe have — as will 
be described in future chapters — intermarried most intimately 
for untold generations, and have lived under precisely similar 
circumstances, yet in the midst of the remarkable uniformity 
of cranial devdopnunt, ■which is evidently a result of this in- 
cestuous state, individual faculties frequently assume abnormal 
proportions, large and small, considerably at variance with the 
common average. This affords us some slight insight into the 
working of nature in respect of national growth ; enabling us 
to apprehend with what readiness, varieties may originate in 
a race whose marriage custom is opposed to incest, or whose 
families separating from one anothcr.form social unions varying 
with the differing circumstances in which each may in course 
of generations be placed. It is the induration of these eccen- 
tric organic growths through hereditary descent, which gives 
us permanent varieties of the human race. 

Although this Table bears internal evidence to the fact 
that the Toda head, simple as it is, is not as simple as it 
might be, and that in consequence it has no title to be con- 
sidered as a sample of an absolutely primeval race ; yet, 
amidst many points deserving attention, it possesses one 
of peculiar interest ; through pointing to the nature and 
amount of difference existing between the sexes, in a tribe 



K 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



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If 1 1 1 li 1 1» 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



35 



I 

t 

I 
I 



which is not more advanced than the remotely-ancient 
people h'ving towards the end of the glacial period in Europe, 
the surviving records of whose dexterous skill and admirable 
artistic efforts, mark them as having been fully the Todas' 
equal in point of talent, and who certainly could not have been 
much their inferior in point of reverential and moral qualities. 

The calliper measurements of Table No. 2 distinctly show 
the mass of the female head of this early type of man to be 
smaller than that of the male. It appears by the evidence 
of Table No. i to have a small advantage in organs affording 
the love of children and adhesive feelings, also in Veneration 
among the mora! faculties. But the women are strikingly 
inferior to the men in respect to the entire range of the 
perceptive faculties, and even in the reflective powers, small 
though they are amongst the latter. Amativeness is rather 
•mall in both sexes, and it is remarkable and seemingly un- 
accountable that in the midst of so many large perceptive 
faculties, the organ of Form should frequently be found 
undersized. I cannot doubt the correctness in my observa- 
tion of this organ, for the characteristic I notice, will be 
found in several places in this book, to be fully borne out by 
the evidence of facts. 

One of three occurrences must have happened ; the an- 
cestral Toda must have developed, with the oi^an of Form 
alone small : or, supposing all the perceptive faculties to have 
been originally given to him of small size. Form must have 
failed to progress from its primeval dimension at the same 
rate as those other faculties by which we find it immediately 
surrounded ; as for instance. Size, Individuality, Locality, 
and Weight : or, again, supposing the converse to have 
happened, that man was originally formed with all the per- 
ceptive powers large, this organ must at some subsequent 
period have become atrophied. The point of interest lies 
in the speculation ; what nature of selection operating on 
men's characters, what circumstance in which simple races 



36 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 

ever find themselves, could have had an impression so great J 
as to have left this permanent stamp on the Toda forehead. 

The following description of the physical appearance of § 
the Todas will, I trust, prove of some value. 

Eyebrows. Horizontal, straight and of medium length; J 
never short, sometimes long ; approach each other. Some-'g 
times fine — willow leaf — generally somewhat bushy, witll 
hairs close and, amongst the women, soft like a beaver's. 

Nose. Generally narrow and of medium height at the 
base ; nasal bones broad at the lower end ; long ; superciliary 
ridge in both series often very strongly marked ; sometimes 
aquiline, often nearly so. never retroussi'. Rather fleshy ; 
nostrils rather dilated, but sometimes long and fine. The 
nose rarely appears at perfection before mid-age. 

Mouth. Somewhat fleshy ; rather short upper lip, and 
rather protruding and pendant lower lip — often strikingly 
so, becoming more evident with advancing years. 

Gums. Generally purple, but often of a bright, highly I 
oxygenated red colour. ' 

Teeth. Sometimes short and broad, in others long ; nearly 
all are even, yellowish, but bright, with rounded edges, set in 
roomy but not large Jaws. With some the teeth are set at 
intervals, spreading outwards like a fan. In a few cases they 
were found cramped and crushed ti^cther ; in one or two 
instances the eye-teeth were prominent The teeth last till 
old age. 

Ears. Generally flat to the head, never standing out ; 
long, and with a lai^e fleshy lobe. The orifice is nearly on a 
line with the eyebrow. 

Hair of head. In both sexes black and heavy; in some 
cases close and tolerably fine, in others as much separate as 
in a wig, and coarse ; wavy rather than curly, Both men and 
women habitually cut their hair, the former to about the 
level of the nose, and the latter at the shoulder. There are two 
or three nearly bald men in the tribe, but no bald women. 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 



37 



1 

I 



Beard and whiskers. As a general rule very thick and CHAP. 

L coarse, wavy rather than curly, extending to the eyes. A r^ — - 

[ few delicate men are deficient in hair. 

Hair on body. At about the age of thirty often covers the 
^ entire body, as appears on the full-length photc^raph, espe- 
cially over abdomen, chest and shoulders. Boys of fourteen 
are often covered with down. Women have sometimes fine 
hair between the shoulder-blades. 

Eyes. Of medium size, a few rather large ; somewhat 

I long, though some are nearly round ; horizontal ; in varying 
shades of brown, from hazel to snaky or beady, never blue 
or bluish ; whites rather yellow. General expression of full 
average intelligence, some very soft and even sad ; doggish ; 
almost all have a great power of lighting up, in some to a 
wonderful extent, flashing, when under even slight excite- 
ment, like brilliants. 

I Eyelash. Rather straight, and of moderate length and 
closeness, never short, but sometimes long. 
Face. Rather long, oval, of pleasant contour, without 
anything harsh or unusual in it, but, on the contrary, often 
refined ; a few instances of rather high cheek-bones. The 
jaw is sometimes, but very rarely, a little prognathous. 
Nails of hand. Sometimes short and square, but more 
generally long and ova! ; convex, strong. 
Nails of feet. Are more flat, probably from walking bare- 
footed on the wet grass. 
Fingers. Some square ; more often rather taper. 
Feet. Of medium breadth. In strong people thick, but 
among the weakly, thin. The instep is rarely above an 
average in height, often very low ; the heel of ordinary shape, 
and rather small. 
Skin. Of medium texture, brown, much the colour of the 
Sikhs, often warm and copperish, a few fairer. 
Abdomen. Small ; a paunch is never to be seen. 
Thorax. Moderate ; the largest girth does not exceed 



38 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 

33 iru Photograph No. 7 is the picture of one of the most 
sturdy men of the tribe. 

Height. Of men, from S ft. 4 in. to 6 ft. i in. ; average about 
S ft. 8 in. Of women, from 4 ft. 10 in. to 5 ft. 4^ in. ; average 
about 5 ft. i in. There are no very short people. 

Weight. Of men from about 110 to 155 lbs. There are 
reasons why the weight of women cannot be accurately a&cer< 
tained ; but it is believed to vary between 90 and 1 30 lbs. 

Shoulders. Angular, never sloping, generally with a flat: 
back. 

Muscles. Never large ; hard rather than full ; some de- 
cidedly below the average. 

The general mass of the tribe are fairly, often well grown ; 
straight and lank, without deformity, but without any really 
fine people. 

The men's carriage is erect, free and unconstrained, without 
being either bold or athletic. Their manners and tone of 
voice are self-possessed, suave, quiet, an_d solemn ; the women 
substituting a pleasing cheerfulness for solemnity. When 
quiescent, their expression and carriage has much oriental 
repose In it. 

The temperament of such a people as has just been described 
would in the main be fibrous, with some of the sanguine orthe 
nervous in individuals ; especially so in the female sex, many 
of whom I noticed show a considerable amount of the 
nervous with advancing years. Such a national temperament 
is more suited to the display of qualities requiring muscular 
cnei^ for their support, than of those in which the subtilty 
of intellect would take part. 

We find the cranium, taken as a whole, to be of an average 
size ; comprising certain very strong, and certain equally and 
lamentably weak, points of form. The singular uniformity in 
contour of all the heads has already been observed upon. 

In order to form a correct, and therefore complete judg- 
ment of a man's character, it is not suificient to take a 



I 



PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TODAS. 39 

' mere general view of its shape, and imagine it as acting under CHAP. 

the influence of an average pressure. But it is necessary to ■ , - — 

master all its details. Firstly, to study the relative sizes of 
the groups ; which knowledge will give a good general ac- 
quaintance with the disposition. Then to fill in this outline 
by examining ail the organs of each group, so that an estimate 
may be formed of minute peculiarities in the idiocrasy of the 
person. By these processes we shall ascertain the greatest 
capacity of the head for acting, when most favourably placed 
for the display of its highest qualities ; and to learn in what 
direction, and to what extent, it will certainly fail when 
situated under the influence of adverse circumstances. 

By abstracting from Table No. i, we find the following to 
be the largest and the smallest groups; the action of which, 
will, as might be expected, display the real character of the 
Toda. The medium groups will not exert much active 
influence one way or the other. 

Very large. The DomesticfB) and Concentrative (A) Groups, 
almost throughout both sexes of the entire tribe, would be 
considered large in any race ; Amativeness. which is of 
averse dimensions, being undoubtedly the smallest oi^n in 
them. 

The 1 Group (I.,) is, in the case of the men, 

^Statical I t' ^ 1' ■ 

nearly equally lai^e as the above ; though it varies in size 

considerably in individuals. Locality, Individuality, and 

Weight are the largest organs of the group ; whilst Form and 

Colour arc often very small, and never attain the highest 

figure. Amongst the women this group is below average. 

Very small. The Invigorating (C), the Reflective (G), the 

Refining (F). and the orderly-calculating organs of Group I', 

are, with little exception, extremely small in both sexes ; 

Comparison and Imitation being exceptionally large ; and 

Alimentativcncss, Wit, Wonder, Order, and Number the 

smallest organs. 



40 



PHYSIOLOGY OF TH£ TODAS. 



Medium. Those groups which record events, give self- 
reliance, and tend to general morality (H, D, E), can neither 
be termed large nor small ; but vary considerably with in- 
dividuals of both sexes, in the size of their composing organs ; 
Eventuality, Firmness, Veneration, and Benevolence being the 
largest, and Language, Tune, Caution, and Hope the smallest 
faculties. Women have a superiority in Veneration and Benevo- 
lence over the men ; whilst the males are the more observant. 

The character of the Toda is written in his acts, described 
upon the whole face of this book.* I see no reason why. if 
caught young, he should not prove as intelligent and as useful 
a member of society as the humble Ryot of India. We may 
at least compare him with the ancient Celt of our own country, 
of whom it has been written ; 'Do not obtain your slaves from 
Britain, because they are so stupid, and utterly incapable of 
being taught, that they are not fit to form part of the house- 
hold of Athens.' * 

' I abstain from giving a diagnosis of the Toda character ; such as 
would be deduced from the siies of his organs, the nature of his tempera- 
ment, and the circumstances of his life ; fearing to trespass on the patience 
of my readers. 

' Cicero's letter to Atticus. 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



CHAPTER IV. 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



rTalking Voices—Modes of Salutation — Home Life — Frank and obliging 
Natum— Colour of the Skin^Tattoo Marks — OmameKts—Boyt dii- 
HngKishtdfrom CirU—Apparet— Toilette. 

SThe Toda talking voice is peculiar; particularly so that of citAP. 
men. Whilst on the part of the men it is strikingly . ' , . 
rave and sedate, spoken almost sotto voce: the women's 
, on the contrary, is rather high, appearing to come 
altogether from the region at the back of the ear — the ' mas- 
toid process.' In both sexes, but particularly with the female, 
! sound of the voice is somewhat musical and refined, 
f though fatiguing to listen to from its monotonous tone. 
klndeed, it is somewhat astonishing that some harsh syllables 
I of their language should come so softly from such mouths. 
I' The refinement arises doubtless, from the gentleness of their 
[ dispositions— void of asperity ; its friendliness, accompanied 
I by desire to please. Not from any innate sense of tune, 
for they have no more ear for music than so many crows. 

Their amiability shows itself also in their observance of 

courteous customs. The salaam of the East, performed 

amongst the Todas by raising the thumb-edge of the right 

hand vertically to the nose and forehead, is a respectful form 

■ of address ; used in addressing superiors, and on approach to 

Eflacred places, and other like occasions. When asked by 

■what name they styled that form of salute, they replied : 

' ItvS eshken, swami eshken,' or, ' I say, come ! I say, Lord ! " 

That mode of salutation which is most employed amongst 



42 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



equals, is the short exclamation of ' Tya ! ' or ' Tcha ! ' corre-^ 
sponding in its tone and mode of use to our own expression I 
of ' Good morning ! ' when friends meet or pass one another. 
The meaning of the word is not known to me. Perhaps it 
has no actual meaning, though similarity of sound suggests 
the Hindustani word ' Achcha,' good, well — as having the same 
derivation. I 

The salute called ' Adabuddikcn," ' or ' I seize the foot," is i 
very singular. Performed when people meet who have been 
apart for some time, it seems to combine an expression of 
fealty with that of courteous respect, and perhaps of affection. 
Suppose a case ; a group of men and women, conversing in 
their village, is surprised by an inroad of Toda visitors. The 
exclamation, ' Here is Beliani, Belidni's wife, and her little- 
sister Penpuv ! " The cheerful smile lights up the assembly. 
Every operation is suspended. Every house dischai^es its 
occupants. All rise pleasantly, and with much gentle urbanity, 
to meet the new arrivals. 

What now ensues depends on certain points of etiquette ; 
matters of prudence, quite understood amongst them. In 
this early stage of society, the dues to sex and to age and 
relationship, are clearly defined. Early and constant practice 
has long made every woman acquainted with the position 
in which she stands with regard to her relatives, and to her 
husband's parents, elder and younger brothers ; and there is 
little else to remember. Hence, amongst the two groups of 
both sexes which now meet, a glance of the eye suffices to 
enable each member to apprehend the position to be taken. 

A man never bows down before a woman ; not even a son 
before his mother. 

A man does not bow down before another man ; but 
women do so before women. 






Adabuddiken. Adi =/ct>f, Pi(Ji or Pattu - Jrt«, iaii hoid of. To 
I ike fool is a common Di4vidian expreision for homage, n 

[Pope.] 





A GREETING-ADA BUDDIKEN. 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



43 



A wife never bows down before her husband ; though she CHAP. 1 
performs the Adabuddiken before her father-in-law, mother- ■ 
in-law, her husband's elder brother. 

Now each one of the juniors or inferiors — being a female — 
approaching each of the seniors or superiors— both men and 
women — in succession, ' falls at his feet ; ' crouches on the 
ground before him, or her. On which he, or she, places first 
tlie right, then the left foot on her head. Such is the act 
styled Adabuddiken. 

As every man of the two parties has to perform this 
ceremony to every female, and each woman to each younger 
woman, and the men to salute one another and say ' Tcha ! ' 
the meeting of parted friends — which has to be carefully gone 
through, and which no sense of impatience or untimely levity 
ever occurs to abbreviate — is one that takes time. But the 
Toda has no wit, and plenty of time to spare and to waste. 

Mr. Metz tells me he has seen a son fall at his mother's 
feet. But the act (a very exceptional one) was committed on 
the occasion of a funeral, when the family appeared over- 
whelmed with grief; and the man, actuated by his feelings, 
performed this token of respect and love. 

Nothing but the natural good manners of the people 
hinders the ceremony of Adabuddiken from becoming un- 
.seemingly slavish. But the cheerfulness of the women, and 
the men's grave politeness, admits of its being performed with 
entire good taste. 

Toda women indeed, hold a position in the family quite 
unlike what is ordinarily witnessed amongst Oriental nations. 
They are treated with respect, and are permitted a remarkable 
amount of freedom. They perform the legitimate offices of 
women in Europe ; tending children, cooking the family 
meals, bringing water from the spring, and cleaning the 
house and premises. Wearing mantles or togas — Putkuli — 
there is very little stitching to be perfonncd ; but they embroider 
the edgfes of the mantles which some of the men wear, with 



44 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



L 



blue cotton, in the fashion which some of the photographs in 

this book will show. 

The turbulent cattle are tended solely by men and boys. 
And the men manage out-door affairs generally. 

It is a quiet, undemonstrative, but intensely domestic 
people ; domestic in the wider sense of viewing the entirt: 
family, to the last cousin, much as one household, in which 
everyone is everywhere entirely at home ; each one assisting, 
with the steadiness of a caterpillar, in the easy, progressive 
task of emptying his neighbours larder : no one exerting him- 
self by one fraction to raise the family. The great feature in 
Toda organisation, is the all-absorbing power of his domestic 
attachments, which, like Pharaoh's lean kine, swallow up all 
other qualities. 

If the Todas lose, in a material point of view, from deficient 
size in Acquisitivenes-s and the propensities generally, yet 
they certainly are lai^e gainers thereby in the quiet, even 
tenor of their domestic life, undisturbed by the wrongs of 
grasping, vindictive, overbearing natures. They no doubt 
have quarrels, in the course of which they — particularly the 
women — are known to use very high language indeed and ex- 
pressive gestures, but they are mere pebbles in a brook as 
compared with the rocks that break the flow of other waters. 

The men maintain their authority in the home circle very 
sensibly, and without attempt at tyranny ; but I saw too a 
woman who, as was very evident, niled her husband. She 
must have acquired this authority by means of some slight 
superiority in quality of brain, for she had no apparent van- 
tage over him. I was so much interested in this repetitior 
amongst an unambitious, retiring, ajid primitive people, of a 
well-known phase of married life in energetic folk nearer 
home, that I had hoped to induce the pair to present them- 
selves to be photographed ; and the temptation I offered 
would have succeeded but for their age, which made a long 
walk over the hills too great an effort. 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



45 



tiio 



The general type of the Toda character is most unvarying ; 
singularly frank, affable, and self-possessed, cheerful yet staid : 
respectful, seemingly from a sense of conscious inferiority 
rather than from an active principle: fearless, from small 
cause for fear more than from the stimulus of a latent power 
of opposivcness ; communicative, yet watchful and' shy, as if 
their natures impelled them to divulge what their natures 
also prompted them to maintain quiet : willing to take 
money,' yet accepting what is proffered with callousness, 
allowing it to lie on the ground or their Children to play 
with it. In villages without an article de luxe beyond a few 
women's ornaments, one may see naked children decorated 
liberally with small coin. The investment was no doubt safe 
round their necks and loins, but the very safety implies an 
absence of theft and violence, which is fully confirmed by the 
testimony of the law courts of the district. Their main crimes 
appear to consist in struggles to avoid payment of their debts 
tfor money borrowed on bonds from the Badagas. 
\ According to superior notions, they are not a moral race ; 
yet a knowledge of many little facts that could not well be 
recorded, leaves the impression on my mind that they have 
certain limits in decent custom (well understood by them, 
though rarely primitive to our civilised conceptions of what is 
respectable) which are probably not often transgressed. I 
could not hope, without a far greater knowledge of the 
people than could be obtained except by residing long amongst 
them, to give anything approaching a just definition of their 
private ways. I fancy, however, that they are less bounded 
by acknowledged rule than by the gentleness and simplicity, 
tliough rude nature, of their character. 

Though their intellect is of a very inferior order, and their 
•ce of character extremely small, and no great man of 



* The Todaa living in proximity lo the haunts of Englishmen, do not 
hesitate to importune for money with the greatest and most childlike per- 
sistency; yet if unsuccessful are not a bit distressed. 



46 CHARACTERISTICS. 

Toda blood may ever arise to influence the tribe, yet what 
they do know, they know we!!. They are inteUigent within 
limits. Although they take contracted views of things, yet 
they work and act within the circumscribed limits of their 
mental vision with great steadiness, intelligence, and some 
sense. 

1 am indebted to the quick-wittedness and patience of both 
men and women, for the accuracy and definition of the in- 
formation on the manners and customs of the tribe which I 
have been able to afford. I cannot present a stronger tribute 
to their frank and obliging communicativeness, than in stating 
that we made a habit of very close cross-qucstioning in 
tiny villages for three and four hours together. One woman 
well earned the title of Munshi, by telling us at a sitting the 
Toda words for the long list of relations given in Chapter VII, 
Notwithstanding the questions were often repeated, and many 
of them puzzling, she kept her head quite clear throughout, 
dexterously speaking with slowness and marked intonation, 
showing pointedly with tongue and teeth, how the syllables of 
the difficult words should be pronounced. 

Though their brains became fatigued sooner than ours did, 
I doubt if they tired more quickly than would those of illi- 
terate peasants in other parts of the world. 

Travellers have affirmed that the Todas stain their skin by 
the use of a blue colour ; but I have ascertained, both by 
personal inspection and by direct enquirj.-, that this statement 
is incorrect. Dark races are apt to have the skin in some 
portions of the body naturally of three or even four shades 
darker tint than in others, indeed often so strikingly dark as 
to give the impression that those parts had been stained. 
This peculiarity is nowhere more remarkable than in the nape 
of the neck. I have often observed it amongst the Sikhs, and 
it is quite apart from freckling or the effects of exposure. I 
noticed it so very much the case in one young woman, that 
I asked her if she had coloured it. The reply convinced me 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



47 



that tlie practice of staining tht skin is quite unknown to ' 
them. 

They — the women — however, mark or tattoo portions of 
the body, terming it Gurtu. Dr. Shortt has recorded these 
marks so carefully, that I cannot do better than quote his own 
words :— ' The women,' he writes, * are tattooed about the 
arms, chest, and legs in the following manner : Three semi- 
circles of dots on the outer side of each arm, each semicircle 
containing nine points ; a double row of dots across the upper 
part of the chest, about an inch below the clavicle, each row 
consisting of thirty-six points, about the eighth of an inch 
apart, the rows themselves being one inch distant from each 
other. Those on the arms have an intervening space of two 
inches; two rows, containing eight ornine points each, on the 
shoulders, commencing in front where the Unes on the chest 
terminate, and extending backwards to a point on a level 
with the superior semicircle on the arm ; a solitary dot in the 
centre of the chin ; two circular lines of dots on each leg, the 
upper circle containing twenty-five and the lower only twenty 
dots ; and a row across the dorsum of each foot, numbering 
from nine to eleven points. The terminal point of each row 
is marked by a ring, the interlinear points being simple dots, 
frequently taking the form of squares.' ' 

The most characteristic personal ornament amongst them, 
is that carried by women ; an extremely clumsy metal ring — 
Tulwaji — weighing sometimes as much as five pounds, whicli 
is carried on the upper part of the arm, and worn according 
to taste ; sometimes one ring on each arm, or sometimes a pair 
on one arm, kept apart — ^so that the skin may not be pinched 
between them— by means of a slip of padding. These rings 
are often built half of copper, half of brass, so that one day 
they may be worn presenting the one metal, and another day 
turned to show the other. In order that the arm may be 
introduced into this ponderous mass of brass, the ring is cut 
' Shortt, 'Tribes on the Ncilgherries," 



L 



48 CHARACTERISTICS. 

through at one place in the circle, so that by introducing t 
■ lever into the crevice It may be opened a little.* 

The device being so heavy and inartistic, and these rings 
known to be often ancient heirlooms, I do not doubt we have 
in this quasi ornament an armlet belonging to very primitive 
times ; one that certainly could not have undergone very 
great improvement since it was first adopted by the people. . 

No. 9. 




Hence it may prove of some value as a means of tracing the 
Todas to the unknown race from which they sprang and 
separated. 

* Curiously enough, on return from the Nilagiris, a friend living at 
Kheri in Oudh, showed me an armlet which had josl been cut out of the 
stomach of an alligator caughl in the neighbourhooif. Although Ihe 
workmanship of this bracelet was far more artistic than that of the clumsy 
Toda ornament, yei the mode of opening and shutting it was identical, 
and the general design, suggestive. As it was not in wear amongst any 
of the civilised natives of the place, and there are known to be primitive 
tribes living in the neighboaring jungles, it is jusl possible there may 
be some real connection between the two armlets, though separated during 
ir 4,000 years. 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



49 



haps the ornaments, likely to be equally primitive with 
these armlets, are the heavy bunches of coiled iron wire or of 
little bits of the same metal, worn like charms from both Waist 
and elbow. Very tasteless and heavy. 

I do not see, in the form of their finger and ear rings, neck- 
laces and girdles, anything deserving of remark. They do 
not appear to me to be especially characteristic of the 
Todas, but rather, just what they can purchase from the tribes 
surrounding them. The photographs of women, show the 
nature of necklace worn as marriage tokens. 

The nose and lips are never perforated or ornamented ; not 
are bangles for the ankles, or bells on the toes, worn. 

You may distinguish a boy from a girl by the mode in 
which the hair is cut. With the latter, the entire back-hair is 
kept short from infancy till the approach to marriageable age. 
The former have a band of hair cut short, or shaved, along 
the head, from the nape of the neck, over the poll to the top 
of the forehead, and a cross slip carried over the top of the 
head from ear to ear. The smalle.st male infants arc often so 
distinguished. 

The wearing apparel of the sexes is identical. First comes 
the loin-cloth— Kflvn— corresponding to the Hindustani 
Lungoti, over which the toga — Putkuli — mea.suring about six 
feet long by four feet broad, made of coarse unbleached cotton, 
and worn double ; ornamented at the two ends with red and 
blue stripes, and sometimes with a little embroidery in blue 
cotton. This mantle is sufficiently large to envelope a woman 
most completely. A decent though cumbersome garment to 
wear, better suited for sitting and sleeping in than for any pur- 
poses of labour. Pockets are made in the corners of the mantle, 
by sewing the double cloth together at those places. This dress 
is more properly DrSvidian than mere Toda, and is purchased 
_in the bazaars. 

They are a dirty people ; yet very much of their dirt arises 



CHAI*. 1 



so 



CHARACTERISTICS. 



CHAP, from circumstances somewhat beyond their control ; such as 

*- .'— crowded establishments and poverty. They bathe their bodies 

in the running brook, and even sometimes use hot-water for 

the same purpose. Yet I do not remember to have seen a 

Putlculi fresh from a wash. 

A pretty sight, that rewarded one of my expeditions, was 
a group of women and girls just returned from the stream, 
sitting, clean and bright, curling one another's hair. The 
locks were separated neatly, and the partings made accurately 
with the finger-nail. Each lock having been dressed straight, 
either with the fingers or a forked stick, is twisted and twisted 
until it has formed a tight coil, when the end is tucked in 
among the roots. The w^// developed female back-head looks 
remarkably pleasing under this treatment — unadorned, adorned 
the most. The curls are opened out in the morning. 

The eyebrows arc sometimes touched up with a charred 
stick from the fire-place ; the fancy being to join tliem over 
the bridge of the nose. 

If they would only not grease the hair with butter, I could 
close this description of the toilette without unpleasant remi- , 
niscences of some phrenologising experiences. 

The mouth and teeth are often kept In wonderful order up 
to a late age. But they take care of them ; using daily a 
little wood ash — not charcoal — and the forefinger, for dental 
purposes. I have seen people of all ages with teeth as bright, 
and mouths as fresh-looking as an infant's — or a dog's. 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



CHAPTER V. 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



The Todas a very ordinary fieepU : the Interest they attract gi-eatly due 
loAsionation — Habits and Manners Jrre from Eccetttricity^The Scenery 
of the Country ; its Silence and Grace^A cool Morning grows to a 
Summer Day — Tasteless Toda. 

A MOST interesting people is this to contemplate. The well- chap. 

marked Assyrian stamp of face, amidst more clumsy types, ■ ,1— 

would, if for no other reason, make them attractive to us. 

But when one has actually witnessed and realised what I 

am about to describe; the patriarchal mode of life in all its | 

wonderful artleSsness : the antique religious usages — effete, I 

the forms remaining, their motives lost : the quiet deam-like 1 

lives ; the even tenour of which reposes on custom, whose rare I 

simplicity and immemorial practice indicates a strange proxi- I 

mity to primeval man ; — then the interest in them redoubles, I 

and one appreciates the fact, tlaat he actually views a state of I 

society more primitive than, though somewhat similar to that ' 
of our own Celtic ancestors, who ti//eii British soil. And the 
traces in his language, of what is cognate to the Celtic, 
increases the points of curious resemblance. 

But it must be acknowledged that the interest we take in , 

the Tod as, is chiefly due to these associations: for of them- J 

selves, and apart from considerations connected with the J 

evidences of the vast antiquity of their habits, or with their I 

relationship to. oth&r races of which we may have especial I 

knowledge, there can, I think, be no doubt they must be held I 

3 very ordinary people ; whose peculiarities result mainly I 



54 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



CHAP, from combinations of negative qualities, and the contrast they 
- — r — - present to all the activities we have been accustomed to. 

It is humanising, however, to recognise in them — ignorant, 
dirty, and unkempt^ — the likeness to ourselves, inheritors of 
many centuries of civilisation. Their children laugh and play 
as ours do. Their tricks are the tricks of our own boyhood. 
Their women display, with direct simplicity, many of the 
exact same characteristics of ours ; even the most refined. 
even the debased. And they are repositories of family lore — 
staunch conservatives. The men rule their households on 
principles of worldly policy as we do, and without any striking 
point of dissimilarity ; and. as I have already noted, are 
treated somewhat arbitrarily by their wives too, as we are apt 
to be also. Their natural language is precisely the same as 
ours ; not a sign, not a demonstration of the feelings, not a 
movement, but may be understood at a glance as well as if 
we had all been brought up from infancy together. 

The customs of the people strangely seem to surest the 
germs of many that even now exist among us. Indeed, 
nothing in their ways surprised me more than to see them 
act so much as we do ; to an extent, even, that deprived them 
of much interest in my eyes. 

The country in which we find the Todas, though not by 
many moves perhaps the seat of his origin, is worthy of 
notice ; for thus we shall better realise how man lived in days 
when he had advanced scarce more than one step from the 
period of his rude simplicity; in what style of place he 
gradually acquired forms and social habits, that he never 
forsook entirely ; and how he multiplied unobserved, until 
his country could no longer contain his progeny — then 
migrated and founded nations. 

Picture an abrupt-edged table-land, on the apex of a soli- 
tary mountain — a very Laputa in its complete isolation of 
some 7,000 ft. in altitude — whose evergreen surface is one 
continued intermixture of rounded hills, with tracts of rolling 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



33 



■"prairie. The hills as accessible as those of Malvern ; the prairie 
land as ceaseless, in its long undulations, as the billows of an - 
ocean. Short coarse grass, clothes the whole, save where the 
deep forest holds possession of the damp secluded valleys, or 
the cool little woods moss the banks of the prolonged gulleys, 
through which the trickling streams or dashing bourns course 
down the silent hill-sides : then collect, and, through succes- 
sive vigorous rapids and tumultuous cataracts — where from 
behind the clouds of spray and mist, noise roars its prolonged 
approval — precipitate themselves into the plains below. 
Wherever, in fact, rich soil and a perennial supply of moisture 
may be found, there are the ever silent woods ; for the periods 
of annual drought are long : the monsoon rain flows quickly off 
the hard surface of the exposed hills, and the scorched grass 
containing the young saplings is yearly fired. 

These woods and forests, and lovely glades, whose perfect 
quiet is broken only by the calls of wild animals and birds, 
Or by the rustic sounds of Toda cattle — almost equally wild — 
herding in the open, form pre-eminently the characteristic 
features of the scenery ; adding emphasis to the singularly 
peaceful beauty of the view. 

The grass, in spots where the buffalo has not grazed it 
short, and where moisture favours growth, is crowded with 
wild flowers. Climbers, in great variety of grace and form, 
swing in festoons from the limbs of the gnarled old forest 
trees, bearded with hoary lichen, or ornamented with varie- 
ties of flowering orchids, which cling to the branches of the 
moss-covered timber. In the dank secluded shades a great 
variety of ferns ; from the tree-fern to those of the smallest 

w-eize, grace the gloom : — 



' O, might I here 

In solitude live siivage, m some glade 
Obscured, where highest woods, impenetrable 

nibragt broad.' 



Iwze, E 
I To star or sunlight, spread their 

m All round the circle of this high-perched green plateau, one. 



54 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



t^^ 



unbroken sweep of low flat country, dotted with hills. Pici 
it an island in a tropical archipelago ; storm, cloud, and driving 
mist intervening between periods of brilliant sunshine. Try to 
realise the equatorial sun acting through this ever-changing 
sky and rarified atmosphere, both on the sweet inland pro- 
spect, and as you turn to take an eagle's view outwards, over 
the grand panorama of the long horizon. Both are unique 
and lovely. 

There Is one view, on the precipitous western ridge of 
plateau, below Makurti Peak — 

* The last hill that parleys with the setting sun,' 
which seems to unite all the possible beauties of such a land. 
Such a mixture of the lovely properties which a landscape 
may derive from the presence of stupendous depths, bril- 
liantly transparent and buoyant atmosphere, delicate dis- 
tances, changing tints, and wonderful shadows, I have not 
seen combined, even in the Himalayas ; and, I believe, few, 
apots in the world can exhibit.' 

Had the Toda made this spot the entrance to his heaven — 
Amn6r (of which, more in its proper place), he would at one 
step have placed himself on a pinnacle of good taste, from 
which it would not have been easy to.dislodge him. But to 
have omitted all notice of these extraordinary beauties, marks 
him as the tasteless man he is.' 

Let me here describe an inland scene ; which, though 
casually witnessed by myself, must often be surveyed by the 

' The anist in search of a study of aCrial effects, could nowhere find 
them so complete and satisfying as in this view. Owing to monsoon 
rains, clear days in which to watch it cannot often be got before (he 
month of October. To be seen to perfection, both sanrisc and sunset 
should be witnessed. 

' In Chapter I. I have quoted a Toda legend, that the souls of men 
and cattle leap from Makurti on their journey to Amn6r; but in the 
e3cpres5ion of this belief there appears to be no appreciation of the beauty 
in the scene;— merely that Makurti is the highest and weslcminost hill, 
nearest the setting sun {Sec Chapter XI 1.), and therefore the most suitable 
locaiity for the purpose. 



THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



:opie living their lifetime in the midst of such sights. A' 
brilliant and powerful sun is no such rare object to those ^ 
who have dwelt in tropical climates, as, under ordinary cir- 
cumstances of heat and dazzle, to merit a description of its 
effects. They are but too well known by actual familiarity 
to many Englishmen. But few have experienced the pleasure 
of spending an hour or two under this equatorial sun, when 
it strikes through the attenuated atmosphere of high elevations, 
filtered by means of the deposit of moisture through frost, as 
realised in the cold season of this favoured land. And I can 
hope but approximately to depict the rare sight, which has 
made a lasting impression on my memory. 

After a perfectly still, clear, cold night, the dawn Ijfid broke 
on the green country, suffused with moisture ; close hoar-frost 
in the damp valleys, dense dew on all the high lands — a 
frosted emerald. 

The slanting beams of the yellow rising sun, as they glance 
over the hills, illuminate with cold shades of prismatic colours 
alt the drops of dew hanging in rich completeness suspended 
from the delicate seed-stalks of the summer grass with which 
the foreground is clothed. It is cold. The breeze that 
accompanies the dawn, waves the water-laden herbage, and in 
the pulsation of the full drops and the fresh sparkling of their 
lights, an interest is attracted. 'Tis the passage of Aurora! 
She sweeps lightly along over the drooping grass stalks, scat- 
tering their burdens as she goes ; reminding one of all that is 
fresh and cool — fountains, crystal, the happy tinkle of silver 
bells! 

Soon we find that cheerful draught has awoke all living 
nature. The birds are shaking out their feathers, and calling 
from tree to tree. The Toda buffalo in his pen looks over 
the fence at his pastures, and moves towards the gate. His 
master opens the little door of his hut, and, putting his 
towzled head into the air, mutters 'Erigitashkl' — dawn, 
rising tin»c. All creation is alert ; the day has beeun ! 



55 THE LAND HE LIVES IN, 

As the luminary continues to ascend, his rays, now grm 
■ brilliant, penetrate more and more the frosted valleys : and 
nature shows herself in a new phase. The little patches of 
water glare like daring mirrors ; the hoar frost melts at once, 
and its vapour ascends in volumes on every side, filling the 
atmosphere as it rises. The zealous sun now reigns supreme 
— its floods of light illuminate the steaming mass ; its dark 
beams, through which the view behind is seen, radiates from 
the skies into the bright mist carrying the elongated shadows 
of trees and hill-sides balanced and undefined upon it. The 
close cattle herd tracks the hill-sides through the dewy grass. 

A near view of the sedgy swamp below, presents at this 
time a rich picture of quiet nature in a dynamical fit, The 
dark mass of green reeds seems, though the only quiet thing, 
to be on the eve of movement ; its outlines al! brilliant with 
the melted frost, and undefined through the sun's halo : the 
shadows hazy and drowsy green, The while the glaring water 
is giving forth clouds of vapour. Insects and creatures, for- 
getful of their cold night, revel in the present heat, and 
animate the air with their busy progress. The water-rat, 
returning from a nocturnal excursion, pushing through the 
swamp with emergent speed, partakes of the glory of the 
water, his little body idealised as to appear a magnified spot 
in the sun. 

As the mist continues its rise and fills the air, that which 
in the early morn was cold and steel-coloured, then steam- 
ing and busy, now becomes quiet, genial and radiant up 
to the zenith. The trees on the distant hills stand out dis- 
tinctly, each in its dark blue patch of shadow. The cattle 
lie ruminating in the swamps. And all nature smiles. The 
clear morning sky is flecked with fleecy clouds, till the mid- 
day summer heat dispels the whole, and 

' O'er heaven and earth, far as the ranging eye 
Can sweep, a dazzling deluge reigns," 

This wonderful country, ever beautiful and expressive. 





THE LAND HE LIVES IN. 



57 






lent yet speaking, quiet and sedudcd, forms the iiau uii'al 

a breeding-place and nursery for infant races. 

The Toda buffalo has roamed over this land for centuries, 
and his master, calling his orders to the cattie he leisurely 
tends, has witnessed the many beauties of nature which I 
have merely suggested, But I do not find, by his language, 
religion, or tastes, that they have had any effect on him. He 
sees the grass. Ha 1 He sees the dew'. Ha ! He sees the 
ffcrest. Ha ! But apparently it is only so much cattle's food 
ith water on it, and fuel in the distance. Ha ! The sun 

shining on it, and the water will soon dry ; then the cattle 
will grow thirsty ! 

The prevalent idea is that primitive man, uneducated man, 
working man, is so engrossed in cares and in the occupation 
of providing himself with food, that he has no leisure for 
contemplating nature's beauties. The phrenologist knows 
better; and you, reader, will shortly agree that the Toda has 
unlimited leisure, as I now show that he has endless oppor- 
tunity of noting the beautiful. 

These hills are covered with good soil — indeed in the moist 
jhoHows it is pre-eminently rich and productive, and the land 
is very accessible to the plough. There is excellent clay for 
pottery. A laborious, acquisitive race, conserving the glorious 
water supply, would render this land a paradise. But the 
Toda scheme is simpler far. He has cattle who afford him 
all he wants ; why should he work ? Why should he plough ? 
And from the lazy man's point of view, perhaps he is right. 



THE MAND.- 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MAND, 

Todas a pastoral Race — DefinUion of a Nomad— Todas migrate, but art 
not nomadic — The Mand or Village — Construction of Houses — Interior 
Arrangement of Houses^-The surrounding Wall — The Cattle-pen — i 
The Dairy or PMtkckl— Typical Plan of a Mand—Selection of Villa^ \ 
Sites — Names of Villages, 

The Todas are a purely pastoral race ; occupying them- 
■ selves almost entirely in the bucolic pursuit of herding buf- 
falos, of which they are in possession of a very fine species. 
They keep no other description of animals, save cats — 
Kotti. 

As they do not attempt cultivation of the soil, they have 
rather hastily been styled nomads. Taking that term to 
imply a tribe which, without fixed place of residence, wanders 
in quest of food — whether that be game or pasture for its 
cattle — -the word is a misnomer as applied to the Todas. 

Indeed, from the many primitive races found in various 
parts of the world, which with striking deficiency of develop- 
ment in the oi^ans of Acquisitiveness, Const ructivcness, Order, 
and Number, are also distinguished by the peculiarity, com- 
mon to them all, of not tilling the soil, we may select links of 
a complete gradation in idle mode of life ; from the lowest, 
or ever-wandering predatory class which lives by beting 
and theft : through several varieties of the nomadic shepherd 
and hunter : up to the settled pastoral races, amongst which 
we class the Todas ; who, with a very strong bias in favour 
of a permanent home, yet migrate once a year, compelled 



I 





THE MAND. 



59 



I 



to do so, simply in order by change of pasture, to obtain a 
.sufficiency of food for the cattle, on whose milk they almost 
entirely subsist. 

I make free to assert that no tribe of people, having the 
organ of Concentrativeness so largely and so uniformly de- 
veloped as it is with the Todas, will ever be found to be 
habitual wanderers. Whether it be, that in the early days of 
the human race, circumstances having forced a family of man 
to become nomadic, the form of its skull gradually changed 
in the course of many generations, so as to adapt the man's 
disposition to his necessities ; or if, on the contrary, the wan- 
dering habit be largely the result of defective size of that 
faculty ; certain it is, that practice and corresponding cranial 
form arc now in harmony, and that a small development of 
Concentrativeness will be found ever accompanied by a cen- 
trifugal tendency ; attachment to a settled home being strong 
in proportion to the organ's volume, strong even to the 
extent of producing nostalgia when thwarted, if associated 
with remembrances of home and landscape. 

Toda families reside in permanent villages — Mand or 
Madd — having each a certain tract of grazing ground sur- 
rounding it Each minor division of the family has a house 

Arsh — in the Mand, and a share of the village land. 

Nearly every Mand, however, has its duplicate, sometimes 
its triplicate, to which the entire body of the inhabitants 
migrate at certain seasons of the year, both for tlie sake of 
fresh pasturage and with the view of escaping the inclemency 
of situations which become exposed to the west-monsoon rain 
and wind. 

These storms drive at times with sudi intense severity over 

ic wilds, that although at the time, the actual thermal state 
[inay be far from low. yet the evaporation induced by the 
extreme- violence of the rain is known to lower the tempera- 
ture of the body so as frequently to cause death to man 

id beast Wild animals cower during these storms under 



6o 



THE MAND. 



the protection of secluded woods, or migrate like the Todas 
for the period of the monsoon season. 

It is also a Toda custom to vacate a house, or even the. 
entire village, for a certain limited period, if one of their 
number should have died, or sickness be rife amongst the 
community or attack their cattle. 

In these matters they follow the dictates of sorrow, of pru- 
dence, or of necessity, much as we do under very similar 
circumstances. We too, who can afford the luxury, have a 
town as well as a country house ; take trips to the sea-side, 
or at times vacate the tenement which some dear one has 
just left for ever. These people do no more. No Toda 13 
so persistently migratory as thousands of our own country- 
men are. 

From what is here written it will be understood why the 
Nilagiris may have upwards of one hundred Mands on its 
surface, yet not more tlian forty of tlic number be actually 
occupied. 

I have ascertained, in the course of a careful census of 
eleven Toda Mands — tlie detailed results of which will be 
found tabulated .in Chapter X. — that they contain from two 
to three dwelling-houses or huts, whose general appearance 
depicted on the frontispiece. Most of these houses consist of 
only one room or cabin, but many are formed by the junc- 
ture of two, and sometimes even of three rooms in a line 
each with its own door leading direct into the external air, 
and unconnected with one another. The Toda name for a. 
room and for a house is the same. 

The rooms, though all of the exact same shape, vary some- 
what in size ; from five to six cubits square in area, and from 
five to six cubits high. Thus, a house of two rooms would 
be about 8 ft. by i6ft. ; and a house of three rooms would 
measure some 8 ft by 24 ft. 

Each room holds one entire subdivision of a family. 

The roofs of all houses are thatched with grass and 



I 



THE MAND. 



6i 



bamboo, fastened with split rattan, and are either constructed 
I in curved outline like the tilt of a waggon, or brought to an - 
' angle at the top, with a wooden ridge-pole, similar to the 
form of construction met with in more civilised life. The 
first method of roofing — which is peculiar, not being found 
amongst any of the surrounding tribes — is that universally 

i em ployed amongst the well-to-do. The latter, which is 
probably cheaper, and certainly more simple to make, but 
endures less the violence of storms, is ordinarily adopted by 
poor people, and for houses of a temporary nature requiring 
to be erected in a hurry. 
The two end walls, which are invariably gabled, are made 
of very stout planking: and where the house consists of 
more than one room, the partition wall is of the exact same 
construction as the outer walls. The side walla, in the tilt- 
Vs^^on houses, are formed by carrying the roof down to the 
^ound, in which the ends of the curved bamboo rafters are 
all imbedded. At the line of Junction with the earth, flat 
stones are used in order to throw the water aff from the 
domicile. All the interstices and holes in the planking arc 
carefully filled in with clay, mixed with cow-dung. 
^^^ The doorway, presenting the appearance of a ship's port- 
^^B hole, and about two cubits high by one and a half cubits 
^^^1 broad, is to be found in the middle of the gable wall, when 
^^V there is only one room to the house : if there are two or 
^^M three rooms, the second and third doors will be found in the 
^^M sides, so arranged that all the doors may be to leeward ; usually 
^^M the south or south-east. These doonvays, which arc closed 
^^M at night with a flat stone or solid slab of wood, kept in place 
^^M by a stick thrust vertically into the floor at either side of the 
^^M opening, form the only passage for the household , and for light, 
^H smoke, and air. 

^^K The roof projects two cubits beyond the gable walls ; thus 
^^B forming a pleasant open verandah facing the morning sun, 
^^K^ and sheltered from the wind. Here the primitive family sit. 



62 



THE HAND. 



I CHAP, air themselves, and perform various offices of a domestic and^ 
social (entomological) nature. 

The people have been at much pains to exclude i 
particle of external air from their dwellings : and were j| 
not for cracks, caused by the contraction of the material < 
which they are constructed, their rooms might have ' 
rendered quite uninhabitable. As primitive folk, living in a 
elevated climate, have far more to fear from cold than frooi 
heat, these ' beehives ' are, on the whole, well adapted fa| 
comfort and for the preservation of infant life. 

I tliink that when these houses were originally built, thq 
were designed with one room only. I judge so, partly from ' 
the Toda name for a house and for a room being identical, 
and in part from the symmetrical arrangement of the door 
and verandah ; also, from noticing that the second and third 
doors at the side, appear like an after-thought, out of keeping 
with the original design, and holding awkward positions in a 
house whose roof is continuous to the ground. I deduce from 
these appearances that their numbers have increased since 
they first established themselves where we now find them. 

It may be interesting to my readers to be able to form an 
idea of the mode in which the very small area of a savage's 
house is utilised for cooking, eating, and sleeping purposes. 

Be it remembered that the room is 8 ft, long, 8 ft broad, 
and 8 ft high ; and that, as Chapter X. shows us, as many as 
eight people board and lodge in this diminutive space. The 
plan (No. II) Avhich. without any deviation, is that of every 
Toda dwelling, shows the mode in which room is economised. 
Against the walls, at a convenient height over both store and 
fire-place, slips of split cane are fastened vertically, so as to 
form slings; into which firewood is neatly inserted, and in 
which it rapidly dries. The women are careful to keep a 
supply of dry wood in this maimer: hence they are able to 
cook without making much smoke, using as they do. with a 
skill that seems to be the common property of all the natives 



THE MAND. 63 

L of India, only one or twolittlesticksat atimc. The correctness 
I of this observation is corroborated by the striking freedom of • 
[ adults and children from eye-complaints. 

A. The pestle and mortar— Kudi. 

B. The fire-place — Vorsh, or Vorshkall, 

C. The store or space, measuring 4^ ft. by 2^ ft., in which 
I brass cups and plates, bamboo milk-pai!s — Honnu — are placed. 



s n 


C 


c i 


= 


* 




C 1 » 


c 




D 


i 



D. Raised bed of clay, measuring 8 ft. by 3ift., for the 
elders. 

E. Vacant space on the floor, 5 ft. by 3 ft., where the family 
eats, and where the juniors sleep. 

F. The door. 

Nearly every Mand, and in some instances each house, is 
surrounded, at the distance of three or four paces, by a low 
enclosure wall — Tllar' — built neatly but without cement. This 
wall, which in all cases bears the appearance of age, is so low 
(about 3 ft. high) as to preclude the possibility of its having 



• Tflar, Tflel. Tamil, Suvar. In all the DrSvidian dialects s and / 
are inlprehangeabic. Thus Shri becomes Tin. Ar and El are affixes 
which are used in the formation of nouns. [Pope.] 



64 THE MAND. ■ 

AP. originated in any defensive project, whether as protectioitfl 
- from the attacks of man or the inroads of wild animals^ 
Taken with the extreme narrowness of the gap left in it fotfl 
egress, there seems no doubt of its having been designedfl 
merely to keep the half-wild cattle off the premises, lest theyV 
should trample on the children In their stampedes, or shouldM 
rub their bodies against the low houses in their hours of ease^fl 
Neither the wall nor the enclosed area is in any degreel 
sacred. . I 

In close proximity to the Mand will invariably be found the fl 
pound or pen — THel' — into which the buffalos' — bsm i e, I 

Er a female — of the village are driven every evening on return 9 
from the grazing grounds. This pen, which varies in dimen-l 
sions according to the wealth of the community in cattle, isfl 
fenced in strongly ; in some places by a wall from four to five 
feet in height : at others by a fence of stout branches — when 
it is termed MCn TClel — according as the site happens to be 
prolific in stone or timber. 

The herd of bulTalos, being thoroughly competent to protect 
itself from wild beasts, is left in this pen without further pro- 
tection, and, indeed, without any shelter, though the calves 
— Koan a male, Karr a female — whilst quite young are shut up 
at night in little huts situate close and often contiguous tQ 
the people's dwellings. 

Deserted cattle pens have at times been mistaken for 
Druidical circles. When the enclosure wall has been made of 
large blocks of stone, and where from paucity of material it 
had been constructed of double rows of stone filled in with 
soil, and the earth had in due course been washed away, then 
the stones left standing would remain in very religious form ; 

' Tftar, TQel. Tamil, Suvar. In all the Dravidian dialects s and / 
are interchangeable. Thus Shrt becomes Tiri. Ar and El are affixes 
which are used in the fonnation of nouns. [Pope.] 

' When Todas talk of their cattle generally, ihe word Er is invariably 



THE MAND. 



65 



most attractive to the wandering irchxologlst who did not CHAP, 
know of the primitive habits of this pastoral race. *- — ,^~^ 

In addition to the dwelling houses just described, every 
Mand, without exception, contains a house devoted solely to 
the purposes of a dairy — p^lthchi — consisting of two rooms ; 

No. 12. 




the outer — porram-ai-g-arsh — lor the residence of the dairyman 
— p41karpai* — and the inner room — ulg-4rsh — for the storage 

* P^karp&L This is one of. the most remarkable examples of the 
identity of Toda and Tamil 
This is p3I— Icarr— p— il ; whcre(t) is the DrSvidian word foTmilJt; 

(0 (») (J) <4) 

(i) is the root of the verb-fo rru'li ; (3) is the suffix forming the verbal 
noun, rni/iinjr ^ {^):mptrton. [PoPE.] 



55 THE RfAND. ■ 

of milk — pdl — and for its conversion into clarified -butter.* Thisa 
■ building varies in sizi; according to that of the village herd n 
from the dimensions of an ordinary house of two rooms, to onea 
perhaps half as large again. It is situated somewhat aparn 
from the Mand, and — presumably for the sake of coolness — isl 
generally found on a site which has been partially dug out I 
from the side of the hill, on the slope of which the Mand is I 
situated. The dairj- is always enclosed within its separate | 
wall, which is built very close up to it, and the outside of] 
the wall often earthed in. The outer door is much of the I 
size of those in ordinary dweJUngs, but that in the partition ] 
wall, forming the only means of access to the dairy room within, 
is of minute dimensions ; probably one cubit high and about 
half a cubit broad. 

The accompanying typical plan of a Mand will explain the i 
description which has just been given. The village itself is 
invariably situated in the open, exposed to the sun almost from J 
daybreak to sunset, but sheltered by the hill side from the full I 
force of the wind, 1 

The Todas have been credited with some taste in the selec- 
tion of sites for Mands; owing to the beauty and often 
romantic nature of their situations ; invariably on some open 
grassy slope, where wood and spring or rivulet combine. 
But I more than doubt if any innate sense of the beautiful 
influences them in the choice ; for neither do their heads, 
nor do their other acts, give probability of the possession by 
them of any taste. I am disposed to attribute the success of 
these happy selections to the fact that, acting with a very 
strong practical sense of the advantage of localities, they have, i 
whilst seeking shelter for themselves and cattle from the I 
monsoon storms, with a dry bit of soil in proximity to water 
and fuel — the whole centrical with regard to pasture — ob- 
tained, by means of the natural advantages of a lovely land- 

* Known in India, as ghi ; in Toda termed nei. 




A TYPICAL MAN D. 

4= RESI DEUCES . B-D*.\RW. C - CeaTVS- ¥%.^ . 



THE MAND. 67 

scape, an harmonious whole, very striking to visitors of CHAP, 
cultivated tastes. , * — r^ — 

A knowledge of Dr&vidian dialects would probably show 
the names of their villages, of which the following are a few* 
samples, to be mainly descriptive of localities. 

Diljavdnu. B&ngidu7 

Kakhodi. Karshk.® 

Berest hro. M ^n madd.^ 

Koana-koar.^ Keshkir.*® 

Ebgodu. Kirzho. 

Melkarshk.** 

' Koan = male calf\ karr -female calf, 

Gidu, or godu, or gudu, affixes to names of villages; from kudu 
^come together \ the same as Mand, which is Tamil for collection, 
[Pope.] 

® Karshk = j/^«^. 

* M^n = wood^ forest ; Madd = Mand. See above. 

*® Ir, or iri, or ari, affixes to names of villages ; from the Drividian 
root, which is variously written ir, ur = be^ exist, Ur, a village in Tamil, 
is from the same root [Pope.] 

" Mel = w//^; karshk = j/^//^. 



F 2 



THE FAMILY. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE FAMILY. 



Parturition — Midwives — Confintminti — Infantkidal Mother taken red- ' 
haniied — Same this Child — Metis Names — Nicknames — IVomeifs 
Nanus — How married people call to oiu another — List of Relation- 
ships. 

CIIAV. The act of bringing forth children seems very generally to 
_ • - be considered an easy one. In the course of my enquiries 
into the causes of death amongst adult women, I was told of 
two who had died in labour. If I were to Judge solely by 
the opinions of the male sex, I should have no hesitation 
whatever in recording that the process of child-birth was a 
mere trifle : yet even after seeking more correct information 
from the women themselves, I could arrive at no other con- 
clusion than that parturition, though a delicate matter, was 
an act which almost invariably passed off without great diffi- 
culty. J 

Men are never present during these family events, tnitJ 
apparently have to await the result outside. Three or four ■ 
women — the house-full in fact — ^remain in attendance ; one 
of whom is said to sit behind the patient supporting her 
frame : the others performing various offices tending to 
alleviate pain, and for the reception of the infant. 

May not the ill-understood expression, * She shall bear 
upon my knees,' Gen. xxx. 3, have reference to the position 
in which we find the person, who with a knee on each side 
of the expectant mother, squats behind to support her body ? 



THE FAMILY. 



■ We call a midwife merely old 



69 

woman — kelachi '' — said 
I my informant — an elderly gentleman with a lai^e family — ■ 
' why give a name for midwife when every woman can act ? ' 
This, though from the male point of view, is nevertheless a 
statement whose truth is borne out by facts. 

' The umbilical cord — pokku — is severed by laying it on a 
piece of wood, and cutting with a knife.' 

' What ! tie it with string first ! ' raising his eyes roguishly 
to the roof, as if looking for a piece of string projecting from the 
thatch. * I have plenty of children, but have never heard of 
such a thing ! ha ! ha ! ha ! Tie it with stringy! ha ! ha ! ha ! ' 
Here the old man turned the laugh against us, protesting that 
such a thing was never done. Whether the cord is tied, but 
that he had for so many years remained in ignorance of the 
, fact : or if it is really never bound, in savage life, I had no 
I further opportunity of enquiring : but leave the narration as 
it was given to me by a great authority. 

On the morning after the child has been bom, the mother 
is removed to a shed — purzdrsh* — which has been erected for 
her in some sequestered spot of the village wood, in antici- 
pation of the approaching event. There she remains till the 
next new moon — muttu' — whether that phase occur in the 
course of 3 or of 30 days. These people cannot explain 
the reason for this removal : but possibly they may suppose 
the monthly aspect or reappearance of the moon to have 
some periodic effect on women. I did not succeed in eluci- 

' Kelachi = oW n'omnw ; Kem = oU man. Tamil: kirra = o/rf. Kirra 
van = a/ii man; Kirra tti — tr/ii womatt — lli pronounced chi — AI = «tfK. 
. Kcladi, in ancient Kanarese = a f f male friend. [Pope.] 

• PurTdrsh. In Tamil we have purra = tfwfrr. Sansk. alayam = 
dwelling. Any termination may be converted in a Toda mouth to a 
guttural sound made up of 1, r, and sh. [POPE.J 

Mr. Met/ is of opinion thai puRh = wfH</; and that punSrsh means a 
mild hul or temporary hpusc. 

i Dravid. 



TiggaJu, full Ti 



, the r 



Ti i! 



L wwdw, Sansk. In Tamil, tinual. [PoPE-] 



I part of dina = day. Glau = llie 



THE FAMILY. 




dating any expression of such belief from them : but the 
profound ignorance in which they are steeped is amply suffi- 
cient to account for all want of knowledge of reasons. The 
custom is probably an extremely ancient one. Some notion, 
of the nature I have described, may have founded the 
practice, though all trace of its origin or cause, may have 
been foi^otten long ages ago. 

For a month after her return home, she appears to have 
the house to herself: her husband remaining indebted to 
friends for shelter meanwhile. 

I had the pleasure of being introduced to a woman just after 
her return from the purzirsh. In the course of my inquisi- 
torial visits, which will be more fully described in Chapter X., 
I had ascertained in a certain village, that there was a young 
female infant which had not been shown to me : and this might 
be an infanticide ! Almost hoping such might be the case, and 
that I had discovered a mother red-handed, I enquired after 
its health. ' Oh,' said the women, airily, and with the true 
maternal interest in young babies, 'they are both in the 
house round the corner.' Thither accordingly I went, and 
found the young mother awaiting a visit, hoping to receive 
for her small one— kin-minthki* — one of the little silver-bits 
she heard were circulating so freely amongst the children, 
of the Mand. from whose society she was still debarred. 

Studying the Frontispiece and the pictures of Toda women 
in this book, anyone of artistic taste can fancy the little 
picture ; which in its way was pretty and interesting. Scene ; 
an old-looking and water-stained log hut, belonging to a 
primeval tribe of the glacial period : summer time : brilliant 
sun: green herbage: forest background. The imagination 
is now sufficiently developed to appreciate the tableau ! A 

* Kin-minthki ^funale iti/<inl. Kin = ^in = lilUn: a DrSvidian root. 
Minthki is probably a corruption of maniijS or tnaniishl = Ti'cirtnw^Sansk. 
[Pope.] 

Popen = male in/anl. This is a mere term of endearmenl. Dravidian 
puppet; with which tl may be compared. (PoPE.] 



THE FAMILY. 



7' 



I 
I 



young mother — infanticidal, polyandrous — is silting on the CHAP. 

earthen floor, just within the doorway, enveloped in a mantle , 

of unbleached cotton. On her left arm, snuggling next her 
bare body, inside the garment, lies something like a comic 
doll, with long black hair, cream-coloured skin and pink points. 
The palm of the woman's right hand, uppermost, is directed to- 
wards the child. Her body, foreshortened by reason of the 
lowness of the door. The nut brown gipsy face, all eyes and 
teeth, just a bit delicate, is upturned towards the visitor : 
and speaking volumes by look and by attitude of hand, appeals 
for a present for the one-month-old. The inside of the 
room — such as remains visible — pitch-dark. There she was, 
smiling away, little knowing of my groundless suspicions. 

A boy is named — peru or pesru or hesru = a name — and 
his cars are bored some time withiti about three months of 
his birth. 

The child appears to be kept out of sight until the naming 

day ; when the father, unaccompanied by the mother, takes 

it, hidden in the folds of his mantle, up to one of the 

sacred buildings of his Clan : and standing in front of the door, 

but outsideof the surrounding wall, salutes the sanctuary with 

hand to forehead. Then kneeling on the ground, he for 

I the first time opens out the infant's head to vision, and press- 

I ing its little forehead down till it touches the soil, names the 

child, reciting the following prayer ; 'd^nenma, mokh ultama, 

il ultama, er ultama, karr ultama, cllam ultama;' the 

meaning of which is: 'Be beneficent : may it be well with the 

I children, the people, the cattle, the calves, and everyone.'' 

I I see now before me, a woman who had accompanied her 

I husband till wilhin sigkl of the building, standing on an 

I eminence, witnessing from a distance, with hand shading 

I ' Strictly speaking, the prayer means, ' May it be well with the male 
I children, Ihe mtn, the emus, Ktot female calves'— in fact, all that is useful 
I — 'and everyone;' in which latter category are probably included the 
r ihimen and girls. 



T^ 



THE FAMILY. 



intent and loving eye, and with wide-opfn mouth, the naming 
of her son. Ye-a-aii ! YEN POPEN 1 she said, tenderly. 
' The father also names the girls. But they arc not taken 
to a temple for the purpose. ' It grows up with the name by 
which its father calls it in the village ' say the Todas. 

' No children may enter the outer wall — tijar — of sacred 
places, until they have cut their teeth.' Such is the un- 
changing law of these Medes and Persians. The reason why, 
is not known : it is sufficient that ' our forefathers always did 
so.' Perhaps as a matter of cleanliness: but probably to 
obviate the necessity for their mothers running after them 
within the precincts. As women are not luld inichan, it is 
likely this rule may result from prudential grounds. 

A feast — a little more sugar and a little more nei— is given 
about the time a child is named ; ap]jarently so soon as both 
mother and infant are strong ; and perhaps seasons favouring. 

The following arc the names of men : 



Nctaradi. 

BeliAni. 

Narikutti. 

Azavom. 

Pernai. 



Kinial. 
Tinkuttan. 
Nidiaben. 
KedAlbfin. 

Kevi. 



Nearly every man has one or even more nicknames — - 
porta" hesru — which have been given to him by his associates, 
mainly on account of some incident in life ; sometimes 
from gait or physical peculiarities, though more rarely so. for 
the similarity between Todas is great, and their freedom from 
eccentricity so remarkable, that salient points in figure 
and manrw;r do not often present themselves. No Toda, 
however rich he may be, having landed property, and no 
trade being followed by anyone, or other occupation than 
those of a priestly nature, names cannot be obtained from 



\ 




THE FAMILY. 



73 



' those ordinary sources. Nor, as I notice, are they ever called 
' of such a village,' ' of the brae,' ' of tlie hill ;' presumably • 
because every Mand has its duplicate, with a different appella- 
tion and varying nature of locality. 

An informant acknowledged with much laughter and 
shamefacedness, that his own nickname was Gurugudugan 

I or Gurugurgan — so far as could be understood through his 
Biodesty. It appears that when driving an old buffalo— let 
this be remembered when we describe funeral obsequies — 
purchased from a Badaga village for funeral purposes, it died 
on the road. And this word, whatever its meaning may be, 
seems to have been given him in ridicule for having purchased 
an animal that at once died. 

His father, he said, was termed Riilta, from Biilt, a bird ; 
Lbeing noted for swiftness of foot in his occupation of driving 
Icattte. 

Here are a few nicknames : 



Kalkutti. 
KAndagalla. 



MOrukalu. 
KOndcmati. 



Bira. 



Some sobriquets have, as might be expected, indecent 
I meanings. 

'Are you called by your name or by your nickname ?' I 
[■asked of a young man. ' Generally by my porra hesru ; but 
I when they want anything of me they are more civil, and 
I use my proiier name.' 

I do not know if women have any such sobriquets. Indeed 
I some delicacy is shown in mentioning women's names at all, 
I And I experienced difficulty in obtaining tlie following: each 
I man being willing to tell those of evety man's wife and 
I daughter but his own. I observe in a book on the Todas by 
I a late author, that the designations he has given are literally 
'wife or daughter of so and so'^ — being a man— but not the 
I actual name of a woman : 



74 THE FAMILY. 

CHAP. Qufildirth. Jinvani. 

VII. 
— r-^ Tushquilth. Nastufi. 

A 

Muneth. Anchaguti. 

Penpuv. Chizarem. 

DirthavilH. Pentir^m. 

A woman retains her maiden name on marriage ; being 
known, for instance, as Nastufi, the wife of Beli^ni. 

It is etiquette in speaking of another man's wife to term her 
either kott^ or panne ;^ the first, if her husband is of the 
Pyki clan, the second if of the Pekkan, T6di, Kenna, or 
Kuttan clans. 

A man calling to his wife, or a wife to her husband, would 
not say * come here Nastufi or Beliani,* but * kukh itva, come 
here woman,' or ' 41 itva, come here man.' 

But the more proper term by which a man speaks of his 
wife is yen k^tvoti.® 

According to these rules, people talking of the woman 
Nastufi, would describe her as Beliani pann^, or kott^. He 
would mention her as katvoti. He would call out to her as 
kukh. 

List of Relationships. 

A 

Man, person, husband . . Al. 

Man— young .... Varsh.^ 

' Kotte. Panne. Such terms are difficult. They are frequently of a 
depreciatory character. 

Y^o\\9k = afort or large dwi'lling. K6\t\ = a person of a fort ^ a superior 
inhabitant, Pani = jewel, Pani = work, [PoPE.] 

8 Yen Kitvoti. Yen or en « wy, constantly prefixed in Drividian to 
words indicative of relationship. 

K2i\tu = dindjjoin, V is an insertion of tense, used in forming verbal 
nouns with a future 'or indefinite temporal signification. 

Ati is a feminine termination. 

The word means, * s/ie who is bound to me? [Pope.] 

® This is, I think, Sansk. : purusha. But there is viras, a hero. 

In old high Tamil we have virral, and the termination al becomes in 
Toda sh as a general rule. [Pope.] 



THE FAMILY. 



75 



Boy, son 

Woman, girl, daughter, 

Father 

Mother 

Wife . 

Youth, bachelor 

Child — son 

Child — daughter 

Infant — son 

Infant — daughter 

Twins 

Fatherless 

Motherless 

Orphan 

Widower 

Widow, barren woman 

G reat-grandfathcr 

Great-grandmother 

Grandfather 

Grandmother 

Brother — elder . 

Brother— younger 



wife 



. Mokh. 

. Kukh.'« 

. App'n, ^yan, en, or 6nin. 

. Aw. 

. Katvoti. 

. Mokh varsh. 

. Kin mokh. 

. Tiij mokh." 

. Popen.^* 

. Kin minthki.*' 

. Mor mokh. 

. Tobbari.'* 

. Baruda.^"* 

. Mudegitti,^^ barudi. 

. Pevian. 

. Pcviavv. 

. Piyan. 

. PJavv. 

. Ennon. 

. Ennorvet, enta. 



CHAP. 

VII. 



^° The etymology is doubtful. One is reminded of Greek, gunjiik. 

In Tamil kokku^copu/atio. [PoPE.] 

Kuk = a receptacle^ also pudendum muliebre. 

^* Tiij mokh. Here mokh « rA/7//. High Tamil, maga. 

Tiij is a difficulty. In Kanarcse, insh^ inferior. I imagine this is 
the idea. [Pope.] 

n IS 'j'lig derivations of these words have already been given in this 
Chapter. 

'* Tobbdri. Tagappan «= tarn + appan = their father ^ or simply father ; 
Tamil. This is pronounced commonly toppan. 

Ari « * one deprived of J Drividian root am. [POPE.] 

" Baruda. In old Kanarese, hscrrvL^ decay, die y fail in strength. 

In Tamil this root is vami. 

Sansk. : vridda « £7/r/. 

Tamil: indXzi^x ^ barren women. [Pope.] 

*• Mudegitti, mo^tai = baldness-, mun4ai = bald, a widow — whose head 
is shaved, [Pope.] 



THE FAMILY. 



CHAP. 
VH. 



Sister— elder 
Sister — younger . 
Father's brother— elder 
Father's brother — younger 



Enakkan. 

En norvet kukh, enta. 
Ennin perud. 
Ennin kirud. 



Father's sister — elder and younger Mdmi. 
Mother's brother — elder and 

younger 
Mother's sister — elder 
Mother's sister — younger 
Son's wife . 
Daughter's husband 
Husband's mother 



Wife's mother 
Husband's father 
Wife's father 
Husband's brother — elder . 
Husband's brother — younger 
Wife's sister — elder 
Wife's sister — younger 
Wife's brother 
Grandson— son's son . 
Granddaughter — son's 

daughter 
Old man .... 
Old woman 

Family, relation 

Ancestor .... 
Clan ..... 



Maman. 

Perud avv. 
Kirud aw. 
Mortwirth. 
Enman mokh. 



Mdmi. 

Maman. 

Yen kl ennon. 

Yen tl norvet. 

Yen katvoti akkan. 

Yen kdtvoti norvet kukh. 

?kyk\ or Beidl. 

Yen mokh ver et mokh. 

■ Yen mokh ver et kukh. 

Keiai. 

Kelachi. 

Anatama, paltial, pay^l,*^ 

kutasaram.^* 
Mftpu, doddavan. 
K61eh — in Badaga language. 



" Pdltidl, payal. In old liigh Tamil we have p^ttil = /tousc, 
Al is the constant abbreviation for avargal = thty. Thus the word 
pattidl = l/wst' belonging to the house. 
The Sanskrit root p4 = protect^ cherish. 

The two words are probably different forms of the same. [Pope.] 
** Kutasaram. Tamil, kQda = together ; qaram = a going. 
In Sanskrit kutumba \^ family, [Pope.] 



THE FAMILY. 77 

The word Anatama,*^ which means elder and younger CHAP, 
brother, is the generic title given to all very near relations. *- — ,-i- 

Regarding the appellation for cousins, the people say they 
have no names for them — * The son of my little-father, £nnin 
kirud, is the same as my brother.' Yen perud^n kirudfin 
mokh yen anan taman ershchi. 

'* Anatama. In Kanarese, annajtammlandaru. 

elder younger they (who are) 

So in Telugu, annajdamu'lu. Here we have soft n, d for t and p!ural- 

ising particle lu. 

In Tamil, annan =« elder brother \ tambi ^younger brother. 

The Drdvidian root 2iii3i = upper, and may be compared with Greek avti. 

Tam == one's own ; so in terms of relationship = my own, my, a familiar 

kindly expression. [Pope.] 



^ 



78 FOOD. 



V 



CHAPTER VIIL 

FOOD. 

Diet — KUtu-^Badaga and Kota Neighbours prey on the Todas — Todas 
give awaf valuable Property — Not flesh eaters — Ceremony of eating 
Buffalo flesh — DonU drink Spirits — Children's Food— Family Meals — 
Grace before Meat — No Weapons of the Chase — No variety of Live 
Stock, 

CHAP. The Todas have no sports or games, except the innocent tip- 
- — r— ^ cat, corresponding in its play very much with our boys* 
game of rounders. No violent exercise. No means of settling 
disputes by scientific personal conflict, as in wrestling, fencing, 
or boxing. Nothing in fact pointing to natural turbulence 
of character and surplus energy. They wear no weapons of 
offence or defence. They do not even hunt, either, for the 
sake of providing themselves with food, or for the pleasure of 
the chase. 

They do not attempt to till the ground. 
The products of the buffalo form the main staple of Toda 
diet. No doubt, at some time or another, they depended upon 
that animal more than they do now ; in a period when they 
were isolated from contact with agricultural races. Now they 
are well supplied with the ordinary cereals of the country, as 
rice, wheat, barley, varieties of the pea, millet and other 
small grain, also sugar, salt, and tobacco ; all of which items 
are, and for many generations have been, either purchased 
from the surrounding tribes by the barter or sale of their own 
surplus nei, or obtained by the levy from their neighbours, 



FOOD. 79 

adaga' tribe, of kOtu,* or tribute due to them as lords 
of the soil. This kfttu, which implies a permission to the . 
Badagas to cultivate the land, is said* to be a certain portion 
of the produce, varying from -^ to j, and shows that the 
Todas arc the earliest existing race occupying the plateau of 
the Nilagiri Mountains. 

Each Toda Mand has a claim on certain Badaga villages 
for their kCltu. Members of each family of the Mand go 
out in turn on a begging expedition to the village from which 
it is entitled to draw for support. And as no very accurate 
accounts are kept, either of the amount, of kCltu due in any 
individual year, or of the quantity of grain which has already 
been supplied, this foraging stands with the Toda in lieu of 
sport, in so far as the uncertainty of the results is concerned ; 
it being to the interest of the Badagas to postpone and 
shirk payment of grain as long as possible : whilst on the 
other hand, the state of the Toda stores, and his natural 
persistency combined, arc urging him on to repeat the visits for 
the renewal of his granary. The result being that the Toda 
gets exactly as much grain as will just satisfy his actual 
necessities: the Badaga acquires land on cheap terms of 
rental. 

Thus we find that these people have, for several centuries, 
been in the enjoyment of a considerable variety of nourishing 
and digestible articles of diet : probably as much in quantity, 
and nearly as great in variety, as most other races have access 
to : acquired too with the very smallest amount of personal 
labour ; the mere tending of cattle. 

From the fact of the strong similarity which is known to 
exist between the Toda and Kanarese dialects ; and of the 
Badagas having followed the Todas from the hot plains of 

■ Badagas, a Kanarese people of the Hindu faith. 
' Kuiu. See Chapter VI., note 7. 

' Thfe statement was made in a Report, dated i835,fromMr. J. Sullivan, 
collector of Koimbatore — in whichdistrici thcNilagirislay— to theGovem- 
jent of Madras, in the Revenue department. 



[•CIIAP. the low country, into a district so cold, wild, and inaccessible 
-, -i—- as this must, by contrast, have appeared to them, we have 
strong presumptive evidence of the two tribes having, previous 
to their migration, long lived side by side, mutually dependent 
one on the other ; the Todas, for the supply of grain they 
had not the energy to raise for themselves : the shrewd 
Badagas, for the nei which they obtained so easily from this 
most unmercantile people. 

Similarly, another nativetribe — theKota — not so advanced 
as the Badaga, but more laborious, and thus skilled, than the 
Toda, followed the fortunes of this simple people on retire- 
ment to the Nilagiris ; possibly influenced, amongst other 
motives, by knowledge of the fact that the live male bufTalos, 
the carcasses of the females, and the skins and horns of both, 
were to be had almost gratis, so long as they maintained 
adherence to their old friends. Thus we see — no matter how 
primitive the stage of society, how microscopic the tribe— the 
universal mundane process at work ; of the strong preying on 
the weak, and the cleveron the stupid ; races, like individuals, 
supporting themselves by utilising and depressing their simpler 
brethren. 

Big fleas have little fleas upon their backs to bite them ; 
Little ileas have lesser fleas ; and so on cuiinfinitum. 



To what other cause but grievous national improvidence 
can we attribute their having acquiesced in promptings to part 
with an amount of meat sustenance, that would, if utilised, 
nearly double their food supply ? And to permit skins and 
horns of vast herds — whose sale would have brought a very 
welcome addition to their revenue — to be removed as return 
payment for a little trumpery Kota music, and primitive iron- 
mongery ? 

What the buffalo is to the Toda, so is the Toda to these 
slightly superior tribes ; the milch-cow. 

There is good reason for believing the Todas' assertion; 



I'that they have never at any time eaten the flesh of thc/mia/€ cHApJ 
buffalo ; for they set ai> immense value and importance on the 
milk-giver. And there are very strong grounds also for credit- 

" ing their statement ; that they ftfver made a practice of eating 
the males, even though they may have died from accidental 
causes. In fact they are not, and never were, flesh eaters. Not 
that they dislike the flavour of meat ; for a meal of venison is 
one of those events so rare and pleasurable as to form a datum 

I in a man's life from which to time alt incidents. 
Yet there is a yearly exceptional occasion on which all the 
:adult males in the village join in the ceremony of killing a^d 
eating a very young male calf — seemingly under a month old. 
They take the animal into the dark recesses of the village 
■vood ; where the VorshAl' kills it by blows of a club made 
lOf their holy tree," reciting the ejaculatory prayer beginning 
idftnenma, which has been given in full length in the last 
chapter. Although fire may readily be procured from the 
Mand, a sacred fire is created by the rubbing of sticks : and 
the flesh, which is then roasted on the embers of certain trees, 
is eaten only by the men — the presence of women not being 
permitted. 
^^ No information can be had as to the origin or object of this 
^^L curious and apparently sacrificial ceremony. ' It seems,' 
^^B writes Mr. Tylor. 'scarcely too much to assert once for all, 
^^ that meaningless customs must be survivals, that they had a 
practical or at least ceremonial intention when and where 
they first arose, but are now fallen into absurdity from having 

I been carried on into a new state of society, where their 
original sense has been discarded.' '' 
* Vorshdl. This is a sacred character, of whom wc shall read more in 
Chapter XViJ. 



Ve, \h, are DrSvidian roots indicative o( heal. 

Varhis is Sanskrit iat sacrificial fire. 

Virragu is Tamil iar firewood. 

Vrishmi is Sanskrit for Agni, god of fire. 

Vrishikapi is the same. [Pope.] 

* For further information regarding the tflde irt 

' Tylor, ' Primitive Culture,' voL 1. p. 85. 



;,see Chapter XIV. 



82 



FOOD. 



The Todas state it, as a matter of tradition amongst them 
that the time was when they subsisted largely upon root 
They are even now partial, amongst others, to that which i 
known in India by the name of Salup Misri— orchis mascul 
— a terrestrial orchid which grows in great abundance on thes 
hills. The woods also abound in edible varieties of wild-frul 
— pflm — and herbs of sorts. 

Intoxicating liquor or drug had never been utilised by tha 
people prior to the arrival of the English, And tobacco { 
still a luxury. 

infants are nursed by their mothers, as a matter of genert 
habit, for about three years : and it is not uncommon, for theifl 
to be stiU suckling when in the sixth year. Boiled millej 
or rice warmed in milk is a common article of diet for youn|i 
children. 

As a general rule, food is either eaten uncooked or boiled ;' 
but is sometimes baked or parched. 

The Todas have no 'caste' prejudices; those Aryan fears 
of contamination which haunt the population of the plains, 
requiring that persons not of the precise same grade of life or 
family, .should cook and eat apart : and which place obstacles 
to the intermarriage of those of different castes, as insuperable 
as if they were of foreign religions or' nationalities. 

Their two meals — which the women almost invariably cook 
—arc eaten between the hours of 9 and 10 in the morning, 
and of 7 and 8 in the evening, in their little houses, but never 
in the dairy. 

Men and women do not eat together at home, but the adult 
males of the family dine first, then the females. This as a 
matter of etiquette ; which is not however so stringent as to 
preclude the women from eating before the men if there 
should be just occasion for them to do so. Children of both 
sexes have their meals either with the men or with the 
Women. When one comes to consider the smallness of their 
houses and the primitive nature of their practices, one cannot 



I 



FOOD. . S3 

but see that both convenience and good habits have been 
■consulted in following these rules. 

Before eating, each member of the family takes a little of 
the food in his fingers, and raising it to the forehead says 
SwElmi ! Swinii !^ then places it on the ground as a present to 
bhumi tai* or mother earth. After meals these offerings are 
swept out of doors. 

Before the Englishman came to the Nilagiris, and colonised 
tiie Todas' land, the country was full of game ; hares, pea- 
fowl, partridge, jungle fowl, and numerous smalt birds, filled 
the secluded woods : deer of sorts, bison, and jungle-sheep 
roamed tlieir open pastures : the tiger and leopard were com- 
mon : and packs of the wild dog— chen nai' — running mute, 
hunted the largest deer with the unerring certainty of fate. 
The Toda buffalos, half-wild, had learnt to defend them- 
selves and their young by tactics, the offspring of their 
bravery and skill ; forming a rough triangular phalanx, with 
the courageous and strong bulls at apex and flanks, and the 
females and young in the hollow of the base, they would 
face the common enemy, and charging him in a body, gore 
and trample him under foot. The Todas, confident in the 
prowess of these animals, leave them to be herded by mere 
striplings armed with light wands ; knowing that the amimals, 
and the children under their protection, would be perfectly 
safe. 

Yet in the face of these attractions of sport : in the presence 
of considerable danger : and with the example of tlie brute 
creation before them, they have not adopted a weapon, even 
one so simple as a spear. They neither make nets, nor do 
they construct traps or pitfalls. They do not employ any of 



• Bhumi tai = ^ariA molher. It appears likely that both the words and 
e practice have been copied from the Badagas, 

• Chen = ri^rf, na.i^ dog. May not the French ckUn be derived from 
^tti-t/u red (fine)} 

G 3 



84 FOOD. 

CHAP, the processes for driving game known throughout India. No 
- , '_' idea of defence appears to have been entertained, or of 
obstruction, brighter than that of making the doors of their 
houses so small, that to enter them they must crouch, and 
crawl through the openings on all fours. No mode of 
catching game, more skilful than is implied in the beating 
the wild-dogs off the prey they have hunted down and are 
worrying, is known to them. 

Had the Todas felt any disposition to add to the varieties 
of their food, or to increase the amount of their animal stock, 
or to indulge in meat diet, the surrounding country at once 
afforded them precedents and examples of people who had 
domesticated cows, sheep, goats, pigs, and poultry. Some 
exception might have been taken by them to the introduction 
of cows and sheep on pasture land which the august buffalo 
alone, should be permitted to enjoy : yet, as they narrate, they 
have brought home young bison, hoping to tame them, though 
failing in their attempt to do so. But fowls, pigs, and goats 
would have kept entirely to the woods adjoining the villages. 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



CHAPTER IX. 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



I 



Cause of idleness of primitive Races — Thrir attributes — Toda qualities, 
ami /arm of Cranium — The most primitive farm of Skull — How la 
judge of Canuibal heads — Tylor, on the Dei'elopmeut of the Human Face 
— Dolichocephali the natural Inhabitants of warm Zones : Brachio- 
cephali the result of harsher circumstances— Endogamy and Deli- 
ckocepkaly — IVhy pure Brachioctphali are not met with — Caste inimical 
to advance — Brachiocephaly the counterpoise to Dolichocephaly— Corre- 
lation between Brachiocephaly and Broad Shoulders. 

It will no doubt appear phenomenal to many of my readers, CHAP. 
much in the same way as surprise has been excited in myself; ■ 
that notwithstanding the example of certain tribes living 
contiguous to the Todas, and cognate to them in blood as 
in the stag^ of their barbarism, who earn a living by 
various modes of occupation, pursuit, and industry, the Toda 
should persist in maintaining an isolation of idleness so 
complete, that not one of the many means which these other 
tribes have adopted for improving their circumstances, and 
none of the impulses to action by which they have been 
moved, should in the least have commended themselves to 
this remarkable people living in their very midst. 

The North- American Indian is well known to be receding 
before the advance of the white-man ; from an inability to 
adapt his wild habits to the too-rapidly changing times, so 
absolute as to give the appearance of his having deliberately 
and proudly elected to accept extinction, rather than com- 
promise with civilisation by altering the pristine customs of 
his race. And we greatly — and with much apparent justice — 




I 86 SAVAGE ANTITYPE. ■ 

VCHAP. attribute this failure in self-adaptation, in general terms, to th(n 
P . immensity and abrupt nature of the change he is called oi^| 

I to make, if he would pass from his free and thriftless hunting™ 

I and warring life, to the quiet of a frugal cultivator of the soil I 

I or trader. I 

I But this aversion to all forms of profitable labour, and inca-J 

I pacity for commercial pursuit, is not more conspicuous in th^| 

I untamed Rcd-lndian than in the self-restrained domesti^| 

I Toda, surrounded as he is by industrious tribes not faifl 

I elevated from his own primitive status ; from whom— had h« 

I felt desire to change — he could at once have adopted simple^ 

■ expedients, as sufficient for his own purpose as they have 
I been for theirs. I will endeavour to account for this per- 

■ sistency in idleness, of primitive and unprogressive races. 

I In the first place, and as regards the Todas, I as.sume 

I as if a fact established, what indeed has every appearance 

W of truth ; that their present mode of life precisely .suits 

f the constitution of their minds — any important change 

I appearing to them to be for the worse — that however much 

I they must certainly, at some early _periods of their career, 

I have suffered from the failure of supplies, 'owing to the 

L increase of their own numbers, and to their having depended 

I on one source of food — which must have failed — yet as we 

I find them, their natures and surrounding circumstances are 

I practically in a condition of equilibrium. That is to say, they 

I have perfected a dairy system enabling them to live entirely at 

\ ease and without labour ; and which, owing to there being a 

ready market for surplus produce, now places them in a con- 
siderable degree of homely comfort — a happy state, which is 
likely to last so long as the land affords room for the people 
to expand. 

Although in the estimation of many, this perfect content- 
ment with a very little may be considered a proof of good 
sense, and be held a great virtue, yet it must be acknowledged 
that the phase is not one the best races of the world would 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



87 



K acquiesce in, If they will not trade, and to work are 
I. ashamed, yet why none of the ordinary short cuts to wealth , 
and honour, by means well known in all ages, and to most na- 
tions ? No exciting and glorious war, with plunder ! the feathers 
of the chief, the titles of the hero ! No women to be attached, 
or prisoners to be enslaved or tortured ! No food but a milk 
I diet and grain, whilst the woods are full of game, and flocks 
I and herds to be had for the taking ! What .is the meaning 
I of all this ? Have we come on the tracks of an aboriginal 
I reign of conscience ? And was man originally created vir- 
I tuous as well as very simple ? 

It appears to my mind, that in this absettce of vigorous 
) qualities : in the disregard of gain and of thrift : ' as well as 
I in iAtrir itlfra domesticity, we have tite attributes of a prime- 
\ vol race, which at an era, when other families of man were 
I undei^oing the vivifying effects of such processes of natural 
selection as tend to eliminate the weak-minded and the 
weakly, and produce brachycephalic-headed and broad- 
shouldered men, had remained almost unchanged, through 
avoiding conflict with nature and man, in tlic seclusion of 
,~the sequestered jungles of warm climates ; migrating — where 
' it had to emigrate from its cradle land — either in vast num- 
bers, for mutual protection, or in company with and patronised 
by more advanced and warlike tribes, glad perhaps to utilise * 
its herds of cattle as their commissariat. 

People of such torpid and inefficient natures would main- 
tain—as the Todas have done till lately — the aboriginal 
I habit of man ; in living on wild fruit and roots, and the milk 
f of cattle it had tamed : whilst other races, made more spirited, 

' The causal organs excepted, no faculties are more uniformly defective 
' in primitive races than Acquisitiveness, Constructiveness, Number and 

Order. When collcciively small, they form the invariable sign of a recent 
' • primitive ' origin ; implying the unihriftiness, innocence of the value of 

property, contcntedness with the simplest dwellings, and dislike to orderly 
I rule, which are also the cause of their backward state. Tune is equally 
\ small : and such people have but little sense of music. 



laAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



clever, and persevering through ages of strife with fellow-man, 
and conflict with difficulties presented by nature, had either 
risen in civilisation by means of a preliminary course of 
cultivation of the soil, and become great nations, or, on the 
contrary, had— like the North-American Indians under other 
and less favourable circumstances — developed qualities which, 
whilst retaining the primitive dislike to profitable labour, and 
the innocence of commercial ski!! displayed by the Todas, 
superadded other traits so ferocious as to render their im- 
mediate civilisation almost as hopeless as the taming of wild 
animals. The Toda is merely a simple, thriftless, and idle man, 
who will never, so long as his blood remains unmixed with that 
of superior tribes, or, by selection, is improved almost beyond 
recognition, work one iota more than circumstances compel 
him to do : but without taint of the ferocity of savagery. 

I proceed now to compare the known qualities of the 
Toda with the form of his cranium : for if my supposition 
be correct ; that in his general inefficiency, and callousness to 
wealth, combined with intense grcgariousness and domes- 
ticity of character, we have prominent physiologic evidence 
of extreme primitiveness in condition of race, tJien it will 
prove most interesting and valuable, if, in addition to the 
objects of our immediate study. I may be successful in 
demonstrating even one practical means, by which, in judging 
of ancient skulls, we may be competent to decide between 
two chief candidates ; of late years styled the brachycephahc 
and dolichocephalic — terms which, owing to want of defini- 
tion, are unsatisfactory to the phrenologist, but which I ' use 
as being well understood by ethnologjsts— which is the 
oldest, most primitive form, 

I feel the conviction that aboriginal man must, like the 
Todas, have been eminently gregarious, fond of children, 
and practical ; for the simple reason, that without such com- 
bination of valuable qualities, he must, in the days of his 
ignorance and inexperience, have been killed off in detail. 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



89 



^and his infant progeny liave perished by neglect. That the CHAP," 
' Toda skull is remarkably well developed in all the domestic ~ 
I organs, and in the necessary perceptive^ practical^ faculties, a 
I glance at the photngraphs In this book will show to everyone. 
Ne.xt. In the dark prehistoric age, whose duration 
appears unlimited, but through which all families of man 
have passed, that race which possessed the greatest capacity for 
overcoming obstacles — taken in the very widest sense— must, 
ceteris paribus, inevitably have remained the survivor in 
struggles with the weaker, and therefore, by laws of progres- 
r sion. more primitive race. Now these active qualities are 
invariably accompanied by large size in the groups of orgatts, 
K-hich, situated at the sides of the cranium, form, w/ien well 
I developed, the braehy cephalic head. 

The Toda tribe is entirely, and without individual excep- 

I tion, narrow- long-headed — dolichocephalic — every person in 

I it, of both sexes, being deficient in every organ at the sides of 

' the skull ; and, as I have before stated, having the perceptive 

> organs over the eyebrow (group I'), and the Domestic group 

at the back of the head, large. If we add to these indications, 

the deficiency in moral and in superior mental organisation 

which appears to be an universal attribute of almost entirely 

undeveloped peoples, we can, I think, make up our minds 

without hesitation, as to what form of skull is Uie most primi- 

' tive of those of which we have yet discovered remains. 

In races which, though still dolichocephalic, are seemingly 
groiving — advancing towards brachycephaly— we find the sides 
of the skull in stages of dn-elapment,\z.ry\n^ in directions and 
degrees of growth, with each difl'erent race. This phenomenon 
is capable of explanation : — We might anticipate that so long 
as the marriage practice of a tribe is what Mr. M'Lennan 
" has termed' endogamous, the form in skuli of that tribe — 
as the Todas—from every individual being affected by 



(I'Lennan, ' Primitive Marriaee.' 



90 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE 



CHAP, the self-same causes, would be identical, or nearly so. It' 

; . would either grow with considerable uniformity, or remain 

unaltered throughout ■ the tribe. But when marriage custom 
changed to exogamy, in alliances with neighbouring races, or 
through the capture of female prisoners in war, then we might 
expect to see the tribal skull exhibiting great variety in shape. 

We find the dolichocephalic Toda, careless of a meat 
diet, and without an intoxicating beverage. Setting moral 
considerations apart — and savages are not much troubled 
with morals— the practical turessily for flesh and stimulants 
arises from the craving of the oi^ans of dcstructivcness and 
alimentativeness ; properties of the brachycephalic head. 
The same organs acting under deep emotions, and perhaps 
under exceptional geographical restrictions, would produce 
cannibalism. 

From what has just been written, it may be gatliered that 
from the shape of a skull we may judge of the possibility of 
the race to which it belongs, haviiig been cannibals. We shall 
see, in the course of future chapters, that we may also esti- 
mate, by the same process, the probabilities of its having been 
infanticidal, polyandrous, or much imbued with polygamy. 

Mr. Tylor, in sustaining the thesis of the progression of civi- 
lisation, as contrasted with its rival, the degeneration theory, 
expresses his views in words which give great support to the 
ideas I have ventured to advance, on the improvement in form 
of the human skull : ' The savage state,' he writes, ' in some 
measure represents an early condition of mankind, out of whicli 
the higher culture has gradually been developed or evolved by 
processes still in regular operation as of old, the result showing 
that, on tlie whole, progress has far prevailed over relapse. On 
this proposition, the main tendency of human society during 
its long term of existence has been to pass from a savage to 
a civilised state. Now all must admit a great part of this 
assertion to be not only truth, but truism. Referred to direct 
history, a great section of it proves to belong, not to the 



SAVAGE ANTITYI'E. 



9' 



domain of speculation, but to that of positive knowledge. CHAP.J 
It is mere matter of chronicle that modern civilisation h 
development of mediaeval civilisation, which again is a de- 
velopment from civilisation of the order represented in 
Greece. Assyria, or Egypt. Thus the higher culture being 
clearly traced back to what may be called the middle culture, 
the question which remains is. whether this middle culture 
may be traced back to the lower culture ; that is, to savagery ? 
To affirm this is merely to assert that the same kind of de- 
velopment in culture which has gone on inside our range of 
knowledge, has also gone outside it, its course of proceeding 
being unaffected by our having, or not having, reporters present. 
If anyone holds that human .thought and action were worked 
out in primeval times according to laws essentially other than 
those of the modern world, it is for him to prove, by valid evi- 
dence, this anomalous state of things, othcnvise the doctrine 
of permanent principle will hold good, as in astronomy or 
geology.' 3 

If the arguments which I have adduced in these last 

few pages, be reasonable, probability has been shown that the 

earliest races of man — -of whom it is believed the Todas form 

a somewhat advanced sample — were the mild dolichocephalic 

natives of a terrestrial zone where nature is most gentle and 

favourable to human growth. We may suppose that in the 

course of ages, population increased, until having occupied all 

regions where man could live without the exercise of much 

labour or skill, it then began to encounter the difficulties des- 

F"tined ultimately to form its character ; of which the chief would 

■ be experienced by those branches of the human family which 

spread into the most severe and inhospitable tracts. These 

wanderers would grow, by means of the process of natural 

selection, and in tlie course of long ages, brae hy cephalic, 

rSavage, and strong-bodied. 

Rather than continue their national growth in intractable 



' Tylor 



e Culm 



92 SAVAGE ANTITYPE. ■ 

climes, these races, now hardy and warlike, would turn" 
back "their hordes in anticipation of the easy conquest of 
the rich lands occupied by the more effeminate and now 
wealthy populations from which they had originally sprung. 
All eventful history of which we have written record, teems 
with experiences of the oft-repeated inroads of northern bar- 
barians on their luxurious or weak southern neighbour. I 
have, therefore, sub.'stantial grounds for entertaining the convic- 
tion that conquests of the more mild, dolichocephalic races, by 
the brachycephali, must have been in constant operation, in 
greater or less scale, and in varying quarters and directions 
of the globe, from the earliest point of firehistoric age at 
which population began to crowd, and races to find a difficulty 
in providing food for the ever- in creasing number of mouths, 

It is suggested that thus we may. amongst other causes, 
account for the fragmentary remains of some races, and the 
living existence of others, which advance of anthropological 
discovery proves to have been, at one time, near neighbours, 
and possibly of the same stock, though now dispersed and 
separated at the extreme limits of the inhabitable world. 
In those instances where these scattered races had inter- 
married amongst themselves alone — practising ctidogamy 
in social alliance — and where the progress of their passage. 
migration, or flight from the tropics had been so rapid and 
free from conflict, that natural selection had not had time or 
opportunity to make modifications, ere the tribes died out in the 
country of their refuge ; there we should expect their exhumed 
skulls would show them to have been entirely dolichoeephalie. 
But where the tribes had, in the obscn'ance of exogamy — 
whether resulting from choice or through incorporation with 
their conquerors— intermixed with brachy cephalic peoples : 
or if they had, in their turn also, been long exposed to the 
action of natural selection ; there we should meet either 
modified-doHclweephalic cranieit or find ike narrow and the 
iroad skulls intermingled. 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



93 



Tt is a matter of actual experience, that endogamous and 
exogamous tribes may coexist as neighbours in the same . 
limited territory. 

Although dolichocephalic races are not uncommon : if we 
do not find a purely brachycephalic tribe—one in which 
every individual member is broad-headed — we may, remember, 
primarily ; that this form of skull — according to this theory 
— was in the first instance shaped by natural selection ; 
in whicli action every person would not be equally affected, 
nor both sexes exposed to all the same influences. Se- 
condly ; such a race being by its nature warlike, and 
strong in its animal propensities, would be little disposed to 
accede to restrictions limiting its members to marriage within 
their own tribe ; hence, in their domestic alliances with 
people of other families of man, the probability of connec- 
tionships being formed with dolichocephali, and the conse- 
quent introduction of narrow-headed individuals into their 
midst, would be increased. Thirdly ; there would appear to 
run throughout composite nature, animate and inanimate, a 
tendency to deterioration ; to be resolved into original simple 
elements ; for instance, of the most enduring metals to corro- 
sion, and the hardest granite to disintegration. Similarly a 
process is at work ; term it atavism, degeneration, or what you 
will, by force of which man— amongst other animals — tends 
to lapse, or revert to a more dolichocephalic strain, Though 
nature provides antidotes to this process, in different forms 
of selection, instances of degenerate form must always exist. 

This deteriorating action is particularly observable in the 
breeding of domestic amimals. The difficulty in maintaining 
breadth in dogs' heads is well known. And the very same 
tendency may readily be observed in the human family. 
Doubtless there must be some limit to which the healthy sub- 
ject can thus degenerate. And probably we shall not be very 
far in the wrong if we consider the Toda cranium to afford us 
a sample of what man — as a race — uninfluenced by selection. 



94 



SAVAGE ANTITYPE. 



and living an open-air life, tends to revert to. I have seen" 
many individuals of the Aryan family far more dolichocephalic 
than any Toda ; but never an entire race or tribe. 

The caste system of India ; which I believe to be merely 
the religious bias, or impulse, which a designing priesthood 
gave to a dolichocephalic and naturally eiidogamous people, 
is eminently opposed to brachycephalic improvement, through 
interfering with natural selection. Even in peaceful pursuits ; as 
in war, and contentions with climate, we are always struggling 
against the difficulties presented by competition ; over which 
the most energetic — the brachycephalic — has most chance of 
success ; of outliving the other. 

Brachycephaly produced by selection, forms the natural counter- 
poise to dolicJiocepfuily obtained through degeneration or inherited 
from primitive ancestors. 

In the assertion of the belief I expressed ; in the correla- J 
tion existing between brachycephaly, and broad shoulders ; it is 
not wished to imply, in the face of ample and frequent evi- 
dence to the contrary, that the rule has not many exceptions. 
Indeed narrow-headed men have often strong frames. But 
dolichocephalic races may well be noted as having light 
figures compared with their converse. I incline, however, as 
the result of my personal experience, to attribute variations 
from the principle I have laid down ; to the marriage amongst 
exogamous races, of the two different descriptions of head to 
two different styles of body ; by which the individual offspring 
we may notice as a departure from the rule, probably derived 
his cranium from one parent and his bodily frame from the 
other. 



CHAPTER X. 



Mode of taking Cemui^Cemm Table — Todas hide nothing but Number 
of Cattle— Revieai of the Table— Crowding— Number of Todas — 
Vital Statistics — Does Ihe Tribe increase, or is it dying oult 

'Among the various objects of Political Economy, one of the CHAP. 
most important and interesting,' wrote Dugald Stewart, 'has ,' f 

been always understood to be the augmentation of the num- 
bers of the people.'' 

I am about to lay before my readers the honA fide results of 
a detailed census (Table No, 3), taken by me in the year 1S70, 
of a considerable portion of the Toda tribe. It will be found 
to well repay close scrutiny ; for more precise information as 
regards actual domestic custom and the social condition of 
very primitive races can be deduced from what at first sigl 
will appear to be a mere collection of dry facts and figures, 
than from a far larger amount of written description of 



A second sheet, termed ' Statistics of Toda Families,' 
recorded at the time of taking the census, will be found in 
Table No. 4. 

Both of these tables were compiled with as much scrupulous 
care and accuracy as could probably have well been bestowed 
on them, The process of collecting information was as 
follows i^Arriving at each village, every soul, male and 
female, old and young, would be summoned before us. The 

' Dugald Stewart, ' Lectures on Political EcoDomy.' 



96 



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gS CENSUS. 

women wouid invariably be placed in front ; as it would be 
from them we should obtain information of the nature we 
required for census puqjoses; experience telling us that on 
points of mere family lore, they, without fail, are more reUable 
and intelligent than the men. It is they especially who 
know of the births, deaths, and marriages, and who can com^ 
pare the dates of those interesting family events, by the 
heights, or comparative ages of individuals in the group' 
standing before them. 

At first we found the people in front of us, an ap- 
prehensive little assembly. The women, squatting on tlie 
ground, would close up together, looking shyly at us from the 
corners of the eye. The men, seated about on the surround- 
ing-wail, were surly and suspicious. Breathless boys, who, 
hearing of the gentlemen's arrival at their Mand, had run 
in from buffalo-tending, stood open-mouthed, leaning on 
their sticks. The girls would stroll about, nursing the babies, 
now and then crouching in to the houses, to look after the 
fire which their mothers had been invited to leave. After a 
general explanation of our object in paying their retired 
home this very unexpected visit — most carefully avoiding all 
allusion to the subject of infanticide — and following on a 
judicious distribution of small coin, made amongst the 
infants, in order to open the mothers' hearts, we would com- 
mence our examination. 

One woman at a time. She points out her husbands, her 
boys, her girls : accounts for the absent ; one tending cattle, 
one the dairyman, two gone to collect kutu : and describes 
her relationship to the other males and females in the Mand. 

What chance had such a simple people of eluding us, when 
enquiry' took the form of a scries of most unimportant 
questions .' Not the most suspicious v^ould object to tell if 
their parents were alive or dead : and what relation the 
members of the group were to one another. When was 
your daughter married, my good woman, and how many 



4 




CENSUS. 



99 



so ( 

sh. 
as< 



boys and how many girls have you .' So sorry to hear you 
lost two daughters and a son. How old were they ? And 
so on, and so on we went, examining one woman after 

lothcr, and village after village. Had they shown, at any 

a desire to deceive — which, as regards human popula- 

ion, they never did — we could have readily detected the at- 

mpt, and outwitted them. A striking characteristic of the 
Todas is their inability to avoid giving an answer ; but as the 
reply will, however, not always be true, leading questions 
should be avoided as much as possible. If you wish to 
ascertain a fact ; undermine it, stalk it down, follow up 
enquiries with others that test it. Their only recipe to 
Lvoid answering a disagreeable query, is to tell a lie ; a lie 

palpable as that of a child. 

My belief is, that, with the exception of the number of 
?their cattle, they have nothing to hide Now as there is no 
way of stalking down such a subject, and they will not, or 
cannot, tel! you truly how many head there arc in the village 
herd : and the Mands are situated wide apart over the hills : 
and the cattle arc not driven home till evening ; I was unable 
to count the buffalos myself, or to form any test of the 
numbers which they told me. I have therefore left that sul>- 
ject an open question. The food supply is one that I have 
not been able to determine, even approximately. 

To some minds this may appear to be an imperfect census ; 
both because the inhabitants of alt villages were not taken on 
the same day, and because every soul was not actually present 
Practically speaking, it is as accurate as could be obtained, 
and nearly as perfect as could be desired ; for the people are 
■very primitive and the Mands are very small — containing 
two to five houses or rooms — the inhabitants have few 

rsuits to lead them away from home, and on cloudy cold 
days they rarely go abroad. Above all, ignorance of the 
fact that they were being numbered, robbed them of object 
in deceit. 



CENSUS. 



Before proceeding further. I will review this Censm 
Table, especially selecting those facts which may be usefu] 
to us hereafter. 

at. We find that Toda males of all ages, bear the proporJ 
tion to females of all ages, of 1 12 : 84, or of 100 : 75. In a 
census of the North-west Provinces of India, taken durinj 
the year 1866, the proportions between the sexes were found; 
to be as ioo:86'6. And in the Punjab as ioo:8r8.* In 
Oudh, the census of 1868-69 taken in ten districts suspected 
of infanticide, gave 1 00 : 75 '6 of all ages.' 

(3. The male adults are to the female adults, as 76 : 55, 1 
as 100:724. 

y. The male children under fourteen years of age, 1 
to the female children of the same period — ages estimate* 
from their personal appearance— the ratio of 36 : 29, or of 
100 : 806. 

Although, as we find, there is a somewhat lai^er proportion 
of females to males among children than amongst adults, I 
am disposed to attribute the discrepancy either to the score of 
the limited number of instances which the census contains : or 1 
to my having recorded as children, some who should have I 
been accounted adult women. 1 

S. There is i unmarried girl — a cripple from birth — out of 
55 adult females, or r8 in 100. 

t. There are 22 young men who are said to be unmarried. 
If we deduct from these 22 adults; the 10 recorded as dairy- 
men ; who, during the term of office, are compelled, through 
religious usage, to live eti garqon: we have yet 12 men of 
marriageable age who are stated in the Table to be leading 
a single life. From actual knowledge of the people, I form 
the opinion that these 12 are Benedicts, de facto. 

' Selections from the Records of the Government of India. Foreign I 
Departmenu Dated 1867. 

' Stalisiics deduced from a census of Oudh in 1868-69, relating I 
female infanticide among Rajput families. 



k 




CENSUS. 



f. We find there to be 49 undoubtedly married men. and 
1,47 married women. 

If this ratio was strictly true, I should be in a position to 
announce that the practice of polyandry had become ex- 
tinct. But if to these 49 men, we add the I3 who are married 
I de facto, we get 61 husbands for the 47 wives, or the propor- 
tion of 100:77. Such, in my belief, is the existing state of 
ipolyandry in the tribe — formerly, the discrepancy was perhaps 
as much as loo : 40. 
■rj. The total of tlie Table gives a return of 196 people ; 
from whom, if we deduct the 10 dairymen who live apart, 
■we find that 186 people, of both sexes and all ages, live in 
35 rooms, the dimensions of which we know to be 8ft. by 
8ft. each ; or 5*3 person.s, on an average, in each of such 
rooms. Such is the average domiciUary condition of the tribe. 
But in village Mcnmadd, 23 are shown to be living in 3 rooms, 
or 8 in some rooms. 

If such be the custom of the people when in a state of 
health, we can scarcely form a conception of their miserable 
plight when epidemics arise: but we can at once comprehend 
how fatal any form of contagious disease is too sure to become, 
if it obtains a footing in the homesteads of any primitive race. 
Let this essential condition of savage life make a deep im- 
pression on our minds, if we would realise any one of the 
numerous forms of suffering, hardship, or disaster, to which 
our forefathers must all, from time to time, have been ex- 
posed. Rapidlyas intelligence spreads amongst civilised nations 
in these modern days, tlirough the quick interchange of ideas ; 
we may feet very confident, that in the retirement of mountains, 
swamps, and jungles, at an era when all mankind was young 
and inexperienced ; isolated tribes each gaining their separate 
knowledge through means of the repeated hard knocks to 
which their own ignorance of the working of natural laws had 
rendered them liable, must have undergone the severest trials. 
A perusal of the column in Table No. 3. which affords 



t 




particulars regarding the inhabitants, will give a curious ' 
insight of the social economy of the Mand. It may be 
viewed as a house occupied by one family ; in each room of 
which a subdivision of the family lives. If we look closely 
into the details of — for instance — villages DiljSvenu and 
Koana-koar, we find in the former, 3 rooms in which live 5 
adult men, 3 adult women, 2 girls twelve years of age, besides 
8 other children of both sexes. In the latter village are 3 
rooms containing 6 adult men, 5 adult women, one of whom is 
unmarried, i girl of fourteen years, with 3 small boys. 

The people do not set apart a room as bachelor-hall, as 
some equally rude tribes do ; the Kols for instance. 

I find in a statistical Report of the Nilagiris,* submitted 
in the year 1847 to the Government of that day, that the 
Todas were then estimated at only ^^y people. Owing, perhaps, 
to the low figure at which the number is fixed ; partly also to 
the existence of certain mistakes, which have of late been dis- 
covered in the names and positions assigned to certain villages, 
an impression exists that the data are not to be entirely 
relied upon. But the record, given as found in the carefully 
compiled Report, is, I believe, not very incorrect. No census 
having been published since 1847, I am indebted to the 
kindness of the late Commissioner of the Nilagiris," for the 
most reliable statement of the number of the Todas, extant. 
Mr. Breeks believes that in the year 1867 they amounted 
to 4SS males and 249 females, of all ages ; giving a total of 
704 souls. 

i. Referring to the Census Table of 11 villages of various 
sizes ; it appears that there are 112 males 4- 84 females = ig6 
souls in those Mands, or I7'82 as the average number in 
each. Of these 1 12 males, 49 -f 22 = 71 are in the prime of 
life. 

* Captain J. Ouchierlony, Madras Engineers, ' Statistical Report of the 
Nilgherry Hills. i847.' 
' Mr. J. Greeks. 



I 



CENSUS. 103 

The precise number of Mands occupied at any one time, 
'h&s not been ascertained, but the best authorities consider • 

;em to be not less than 40. Hence, by a short calculation, 
we find that the tribe consisted, in 1870, of not less than 407 
males + 306 females, or 71 3 souls ; of whom 258 were men in 
the prime of life. 

Now, if the Report from which I have just quoted, should 
be correct, it would appear that the tribe has more than 
doubled in about 23 years ; and the opportunity, has been 
lost to me ; of witnessing the process, and of ascertaining the 
causes, by means of which a race may die out. With every 
desire for the happiness of existing Todas, I still grieve to 
have been deprived of the interesting study. 

It is very much to be lamented that no vital statistics exist 
of the people : and that such as I have been able to collect, 
cannot be depended upon, absolutely ; being merely approx- 
imate. 

I, Of the 196 people found noted in the Census Table, I 
ascertained by personal inspection that there were only z 
cases of natural malformation ; viz., in the village of Koana- 
koar, a young woman who was a cripple from birth : in 
Keshkir, a girl squinting witli one eye. 

«. Only 3 people possessed defects tliat would either tend 
to shorten life or to evidence the probability of its soon 
drawing to a close ; viz., in Ebgodu, a man nearly deaf and 
blind irom old age : in the same village an infant with a 
skin disease: and In Kirzho, a middle-aged man in bad general 
health. 

Many were»scored on the shoulder as a remedy for rheu- 
matism. One woman was in quarantine after child-birth. 
And one woman was blind of an eye from a spark of fire 
having flown into it. It is said that contagious disease is not 
uncommon, but I am greatly disposed to doubt the statement, 
as applied to the present day. None came before me marked 
by smallpox. A case of leprosy was met with; but as the 



104 



CENSUS. 



ppHAP. man afflicted with that dreadful malady, was not amongst thft I 
196 people of the census, the case cannot be used in these"! 
calculations. 

As regards the general appearance of the people ; a large 
proportion of both sexes and of all ages are doubtless in ex- 
cellent health. Up to the age of fourteen, the children are 
certainly, and almost universally, hale and hearty. The young 
women look well, too: but the young men are often bottle- 
nosed, with a general appearance of deficient circulation, in- 
sufficient food, and of athletic exercise. Nature seems to 
make competent arrangements, by means of which the female 
sex is able to bear children during the extra period that 
young men require for the purpose of completing their growth. 
It is probably a consequence or a portion of this design, that 
renders girls as a general rule more easy to rear than boys. 1 
Be that as it may. these rather weedy youths fill out in course I 
of time, and complete their features with mature age — theJ 
large nose is rarely, or perhaps never, apparent in the youngs 
and seems not to attain its climax till near the age of thirtyl 
— the women in advanced years are often draggled in ap<fl 
pcarance, from poverty and child-bearing. The full-growoJ 
men look strong and well. 

Now for our examination into the augmentation of the 1 
numbers of the people. 

If we allow, that out of the 3 people recorded in para- i 
graph (x) to be in a state of health unfavourable to pi'olongcd j 
existence, 2 die in the course of the year. And suppose 
that another 2 die in the same period from other causes- 
high rate for those who, living a pastoral and quiet life ii 
healthy climate, arc exposed to few vicissitudes — we have 
then 4 deaths amongst 196 people, in the course of twelve 
months ; or 2 per cent, per annum, as the extreme death-rate 
for a// ages. 

In the years between 1838 and 1861, the average ratio of 1 
mortality in Great Britain — a country in which high civilisa- ( 



CENSUS. 



105 



: people to vicissitudes from CHAP, 



I competitton, expose il 
I which the Toda is entirely exempt — was i in 45, or 2'23 per ■ 
I cent, per annum.* 

We shall find in a succeeding chapter on Infanticide, 

I Table No. 7. that of 26M + 20 F, or 46 children, who— 
P judging from the ages of the mothers — were of different ages, 
I varying from i to 20 years, 5 died. In other words, 10*87 P^"" 
I cent, of children bom, die o^ youthful maladies. 

If, from the same Table, we calculate the number of 
I children, whose mothers being less than 27 years must them- 
L selves be under 10 years of age, we see that of 23 born, 3 
I died ; or that 13 per cent, died of infantile disorders. 

An average taken of the mortality of several countries in 
\ Europe, gives 38'3 per cent, of children who died in the year 
I 1825, 'from birth to the age of 10.'' 

Not to fatigue my readers with further preliminaries, I will 
now submit the brief calculation which is to show whether 
the Todas are dying out or increasing in numbers ; and at 
what rate of progress. Mathematical accuracy cannot, with 
I justice, be expected ; for, even with the most perfect census 
I possible, there are obvious reasons why exactness is unattain- 
\ able. I will premise, in the words of Dugald Stewart, that 
'the rate at which the multiplication of diff"erent races would 
' go, seems to depend on the following particulars; (i) the age 
at which the parent becomes prolific ; (2) the time that elapses 
in pregnancy ; {3) the frequency of breeding ; (4) the numbers 
of each brood; (5} the period during which the parent con- 
tinues prolific.'* 

Suppose then we begin our reckoning with 177 married 

I Todas of both sexes. Paragraph (^ of this chapter informs 
us that of this 177, there will be 100 men and Ty women. 
Tables Nos. 6 and 7 show that the average of women — 



I 



• Adam Smith, ' The Wealth of Nations.' 

' Malihus, ' Essay on the Principle of Population.' 

» Dugald Stewart, ' Lectures on Political Economy.' 



io6 



CENSUS. 



^CHAp. including a proportion of the sterile — bear children for 20i 
years, at the rate of 6 children for each woman. 

We know from paragraph (X), that of lOO children bom,-. 
iO'87 die before they attain to the age of 20. 

The natural death-rate of all ages is allowed -in para-' 
graph (k) to stand at 2 per cent, per annum ; which rate is 
here taken for the proportion of adults only, who die — a very 
high figure. Hence i S'zg per cent, will give the number of 
deaths during the ten years which forms the nuan period of 
child-bearing. 

Calculation, 
yy Number of women who commence to; 
bear children. 
77-l8'29= 5871 Average number of women who bear 
children for zo years. 
Then 

5S71 x6=3S2-26 Number of children bom to those 
women at the expiration of 20 years. 
Deduct 

53-26-1- io87= 32'4i The number of children who die 
before attaining 20 years. 

3i9'S5 The number of diildren who survive 
at the expiration of 20 years. 

During these 20 years, the original 
177 people have decreased by 2 per 
cent, per annum ; or 33"2i per 
cent. = 5878. \ 

Thus ■ 

177-5878= 1I8'22 " 

438-07 

We see therefore that in the course of 20 years, the 177 
Todas have theoretically expanded to 43.8. Thus doubling 
in i6*3 years. ' In the back settlements of America, where 



I 




9* 



X. 



CENSUS. ro7 

the inhabitants applied themselves solely to agriculture, and CHAP, 
luxury was not known, the people were found to double - 
themselves in 1 5 years/' And it has been shown by Adam 
Smith, that * when the means of subsistence are supplied in 
sufficient abundance, the principle of increase is powerful 
enough to cause population to advance in geometrical propor- 
tion, or in the ratio of the numbers I. 2. 4. 8. 16/*® 

It follows therefore, taking the present number of the Toda 
tribe at 713, and the term of doubling at i6"2 years, that 

in the year 1886 they will have become 1426 
1902 „ „ 2852 

1918 „ „ 5604 

and so on ; of which numbers, nearly one-third will be men 

in the prime of life. 

• Malthus, * Essay on the Principle of Population.* 
»o Adam Smith, ' The Wealth of Nations.' 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



CHAPTER XI. 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



TJti day approaches when lh< Nilagiris ivill not afford support for the 
Todas — Occupations which the Todas might take to — A little educa- 
tion 7vouid gii'e them a good start in life — Toda Males bear to Females 
the ratio of lOo ; yi—The cause of this disparity bettveen the Sexes- 
A male-producing variety of man, formed by Infantiade- 
Family Statistics. 




Supposing that the Toda cattle should multiply at 
same rate of prepress as their masters are shown to 
doing, still the time must sooner or later arrive, when the 
available grazing land on these mountains will be insufficient 
to feed them all. I may repeat, that the food, on the due 
supply of which the Toda depends, is derived from two 
sources only ; viz., that wliich is obtained as. a cess from the 
Badagas in lieu of rent for the Toda land they cultivate : and 
that which is acquired by the consumption and sale of the 
products of their own buffalos. The first is a fixed quantity ; 
the second will become a fi.xed quantity also, so soon as the 
cattle have attained their lai^est practicable number. 

If then the Todas persist in adhering without deviation, to 
their present habits and customs, it is clear that the time 
must be approaching when the tribe will drift into a con- 
dition of great distress. 'Food,' wrote Adam Smith, "is indis- 
pensable for the support of human life ; and it may be said 
that this condition of our existence has a natural tendency to 
make every man perish of hunger! In point of fact, however, 
very few perish of want ; and the tendency in question is, in the 
great majority of case.s, far more than counterbalanced by 







FAMILY STATISTICS. 



109 



Pthe opposing principles to which it gives rise — by the industry 1 
land foresight which it enforces on the attention of every man.'' - 
Two sources of food, entirely apart from those to which I 
have alluded, are available ; the adoption of either of which 
would not only rescue the Todas from immediate danger, but 
might stamp an era whence their rise in the world would date, 
viz., the physical labour of the men: and the sale of male 
cattle, of horns and hides, of which they are at the present 
time cheated by the Kotas. Both cooly-labour and cattle- 
breeding, should be occupations suitable to an able-bodied 
pastoral people. 

t With a race that labours, everything is possible. Civilisation 
pwes to labour her first impulses. It gives to nature the 
opportunity of selection, which the Todas have avoided ; that 
process, by means of which, the fittest survive, and the in- 
efficient gravitate first, into the lowest ranks of a population : 
then die out through tlie want and maladies which are the 
results of their own ignorance and want of vigour. 
A modicum of worldly education ; a little writing and 
ciphering, would give them a start in life : some local geog- 
raphy and knowledge of the world, inculcated by the enforced 
travelling of some of the more intelligent of their number, 

» would enlarge their ideas. For the rest they must act for 
themselves. Thus when the time arrives — as come it en- 
evitably must do — that, in spite of labour and cattle-breeding, 
the small Nilagiri plateau can no longer contain their ever- 
increasing numbers ; the little colonies they would throw off, 
_ would not retire into the depths of the surrounding country, as 
ignorant and barbarous as these their ancestors ; to be preyed 

• upon by offshoots from their present wily neighbours ; but 
would have a good chance of becoming independent and im- 
proving peoples. 

In paragraph («) of the last chapter, I showed that the 



' Adam Smith, ' Tbe Wealth of Nations.' 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



Toda m^es of all ages bear to the females, the proportion irf'_ 
- lOO : 75 ; and the correctness of this statement is somewhat 
confirmed by the ratio in adults and in children, given in para- 
, graphs (0) and (y) bearing a similar discrepancy. This excess 
of males is a very striking fact, and its truth may be accepted 
without doubt or mental reserve. I think we cannot quite 
account for the universal paucity of females without ac- 
knowledging, either that infanticide is, or has recently been 
practised to a very sensible extent: or that more boys are 
bortt than girlsi 

To what cause may we attribute this wide departure 
in nature, from those of her well-established laws ; by the 
operations of which, equality between the sexes, is, within 
certain limits of divergence, known to be preserved, in all 
countries of whose population we have accurate knowledge .' 
If we are disposed to describe the cause, in some general 
expression, as ' race peculiarity,' we still cannot bq satisfied 
with less than the discovery of the physiologic reason for 
such eccentricity. We note the food and clothing, the mode 
of life, the climate ; and fail to sec sufficient reason for as- 
cribing what we seek to any such origin. In fact, as regards 
the Todas, we can with certainty pronounce, that in only two 
respects can their surroundings be considered to differ widely 
in an important manner, from that of vast masses of mankind 
to whom great variation between the sexes has never been 
traced ; viz., in their marriage system, and in the practice of 
infanticide. 

We have learnt that relationship is, with the Todas, inti- 
mate far beyond that witnessed in any country approach- 
ing civilisation. Intimate to such a degree, that the whole 
tribe, where not parents and children, brothers and sisters, 
are all first-cousins, descended from lines of first-cousins 
prolonged for centuries. Let me show emphatically and 
distinctly that such is in truth the case. The tribe con- 
sists of about 713 persons, divided between 5 clans; of which 




FAMILY STATISTICS. 



I^two are almost extinct. The remaining three clans, being CHAP^J 
pearly of equal number, must contain about 200 members ■ 
r all ages each. But one of them — the Peiki clan — marries 
tolely within itself. Hence, this small body of 200 people 
jfcave intermarried from time immemorial. And the inter- 
teourse must have become very promiscuous. I do not attribute 
idisparity between the sexes to this close intercourse ; but it is 
Interesting to review the primitive practice, as a custom • 

■connected with the paucity of numbers arising from infan- 
ticide, and with the polyandrous habit which is found in 
junction with it. 
In future chapters we shall see that the practice of in- 

■ianticide as observed by the Todas, was the habitual de- 
ruction of all daughters in evtry family, except one or 

nometimes two. And we know that the average size of Toda 
bmilies is 6 children born to each woman. 
Now let us for the purpose of illustration take three families 

Eas representing an average of the entire tribe ; say that one 
mother gives birth to 6 daughters and no sons : a second 
mother has 6 sons only, whilst the third mother has 3 sons 
and 3 daughters. The first motlier — following the triba 
custom — destroys 4 daughters and preserves 2. The second 
retains her 6 sons. The third kills 3 daughters and keeps l, 
s also her 3 sons. We have then, from the three families, 9 
sons and 3 daughters with which to continue the breed. But 
whilst the males belong to families in which the tendency to 
produce sons is great, the females are of those of a converse 
inclination. Thus the bias strengthens with each generation, 
until, as we find, families grow to have habitually more sons 
than daughters. This habitude outlasting- the depraved practice 

mwkich caused it, indurates more or less, into a fixed character- 

plstic of the people : and a male-producing variety of man is 
formed. 

In presenting Table No. 4, containing what I have termed 
' Statistics of Toda Families,' to the indulgence of my readers, 



\ 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



Hi L 

ill! 



dipt 



^ i4 
II m 

11 '4i1 

f -il ills 
I -hi Sill 



Hi 



pan 'mBp 
JO nSi »| 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



jlJIIj 



1 1 



i . •' . 

^ % i 

il ll 1^ 

y Jl l,e 

i' sa s^ 



T — T 
1 I 



^B CHAP. 


114 


FAMILY STATISTICS. ' 


'11 

j!i 1 
1 11 B 

1 


1 1 
1 - 

11 


iu 1 

111! f 1 




^ 


i 


1 




= 1 1 


... 1,11 


- 


1 1 




J 


J 


1 1 1 


? - "11 


= 


1 t 1 


" - --III 


.1 


sjimna 


a 


TS S"-' 1 


9, i-S 5" - 1 1 


"1=W 


= 


■SS 1 1 


i: '.::: ss ' i - 


1 


JJqloUlB ino Oldiq! 


s 


usiiioia 




par 'pnp wqi 
JO OBt l^rqa'i 


' 


1 1 1 


- " 1 1 1 1 


. 


] 1 1 


- - 1 1 1 1 


,.3-,Sl,v 


- 


a s -s 


a o a ■« ff K- 


1 


• 


1 = = 






r^^""?™ 


- 


^ = " 


s B :? ^ - £ 


1 


in»3Jd°ia3JE<ldv 




S s, ? 


R s a s B ^ 


1 


" 


i = ■ 




spornjomnN 


" 


npoSqa 


tipvautg 


wn'T^'K 




■a ? s 


:: s s s s t 


^ 




^^^ 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



J 
i 

II 

!1 


1 n 

Jlli 


h 


!1 !!! 

A fc P Z Z 2 



•J 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



V'i 



F ■ 

li 

m ■ 



i| 



¥l 



" I ^■Sffff SiK-S 



I '' 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



y i 



i i 
I J 
I J 

i i 






: I 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



Table Ko. V. 

Informatiott deduced from ' Statistics of Toda Families' 
Table No. IV. 



I^»nl 


"'-htn 


™- 


Rnurlu 


•g»ul 


Whcif" 


Child 


■ 

Renurlu 


i 

i 


X 


f 




! 


1 

i 


f 

! 
1 


i 


1 

! 
1 


1 
1 

1 


1 

1 

z 


* 


3 

3 


3 

S 


> 


i 


t 

i 

i 

i 

1 


1 


1 

1 


., 




t. 


u 




■534 

ta 

8.: 
-JO 

IS 

6 13 
6 I 




e 


T 




9 


1ll\, 


Boiren. 

ChiW-nuuriien- 
Child-nuiTUce. 

Bum. 

Child-muTUSE. 


5S0 

6D 

■i(0 


.... 

i 




'; 






; 


1 




6 


Olild-rarriMtc. 
Batret 

ChiW-manui 


6 


'7 


*l 


" 


I 


• 


S8 


-; 
















3' 




?i 




19 


•51I 


3! 

■5 
70 


^ 






■• 





FAMILY STATISTICS. 



119 



Table No. VI. 



CHAP. 
XL 



To ascertain the ' ages at which Toda women commence and 

leave off Child-bearing! 

Compiled fro^n Tables No, IV. or V. 



Commenced Child-bearing 



Left off Child-bearing 



.a 

•J 
u 

•s 

§ 



I 

2 

3 
10 

II 

12 

14 

15 
16 

19 
22 

23 

24 
26 

29 

35 
36 

37 

38 
40 

44 

45 
46 

51 

54 
55 



26 









r3 




^ 


4! 


u 


^ 


2 


•s 


•0 


V 





s* 


\& 


** 


U5 


s 





1 


^ 


27 


12 


25 


II 


40 


25 


38 


24 


24 


2 


18 





18 


2 


40 


25 


22 


2 


30 


10 


45 


20 


42 


22 


20 


3 


28 


8 


24 


6 


28 


3 


45 


30 


45 


28 


25 


12 


25 


10 


40 


28 


45 


29 


30 


12 


26 


10 


42 


25 


20 


I 






"3 8 



452 
26 



15 

14 

15 

H 
22 

18 P 

16 

15 
20 

20 

25 
20 

17 
20 

18 

25 

15 

17 

13 

15 
12 

16 

18 

16 

17 
19 



Remarks 



> 

il 
ft : 

O c4 

£| 

rt ^ 

o d 

'C 8 

-a 



.2 «- 



G 
O 

d 



= 17-4 



^ Average ase 
at wluch the 
women com- 
mence child- 
-bearing. 



3 
4 
5 

15 
17 
21 

22 

27 
28 

36 
37 
42 

43 
44 
45 
49 
53 
54 



18 



bo 



40 

65 
60 

40 

75 
50 

45 

55 
60 

45 
45 
50 

55 
40 

45 
55 
65 
42 



a 



o 
o 

< 



10 

12 

20 

8 

35 
18 

8 

14 
20 

2 

9 
14 

7 

5 
12 

15 
24 
25 



4 

rt'p 



a' 



30 

53 
40 

32 
40 

32 
37 

41 
40 

43 
36 

36 

48 

35 

33 
40 

41 
17 



674 
18 



Remarks 



•5 fe'y 



37*4 



Avera^age 
at which the 
women leave 
off child 
hearing. 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



CHAP. Table No. VII. 

.^^ ^^' . To ascertain the ' size of Toda Families : ' the 'period during' 
which the women bear children;^ and the 'number of years 
intervetting between tite birth of children! 

Compiled from Tables No. IV. or V. 





I-* 


1 


1 


J 






If 


1 


.a 

1 


1 




t 






if 

|5 


■5 

1 


RfhutIu 


i 


1I 

J" 


[ 


II 


J 


Rauili 


Wivowhnh.vc left off 


11 i" 




|i' 


3 
5 
'S 

«7 


15 

'5 

'5 


30 

40 ■ 

3» 

40 


'5 

25 


5 

5 
6 


pi-. 


3 


IS 

14 
14 


a? 
=S 
38 


333 

25 


..4 

4 
4 
7 


11 


il 


17 


3* 


>5 


S 


"5E ^° 




31 


34 


3 




^1 


u 


a5 


37 


■ 3 


8 


-.i ?g 


13 


18 


18 


I 


I 


VI 


■5 


41 


26 


6 


1^ li 


14 


16 


iS 


2 


I 


aS 
36 


16 
15 


38 
43 


33 


9 
S 


prf 


18 


19 


33 

35 


3 
16 


S 


■S.I 


37 
43 


as 


36 

48 


'9 

16 
33 


9 
9 




'9 

n 
34 


>7 


30 
4a 
3o 


32 
3 


3 

6 


44 


12 


35 


23 


S 


:es.:|5 


26 


30 


38 


S 


3 


4S 
49 


i« 


33 
40 


17 


4 
5 


ilHl 


29 

3S 


3S 


34 
38 


6 

3 


' 


'1 


S3 
54 

17 
9 


23 

>7 


41 
4a 


18 

as 


lO 


38 
40 
46 
SI 
5S 


«3 
'5 
i3 
16 
19 


25 
25 

30 
3a 


lo 


3 

3 

5 
3 


II 


333 


114 


32 
SO 









** 


i|ii 








500 


.67 


SeIE 


.0 






333 


.^ 


^li-^-a 












e^= 



! who. hmnng htdy mrnuied, hivt dm yet ri 



FAMILY STATISTICS. 



' it is advisable to mention, that although as much patient care CHAl 
was taken to collect the evidence it contains, with the same ■ 
accuracy as that bestowed on the Census, yet there are 
reasons why it could not be attained. For the latter purpose 
the people were nearly all present ; whereas in the process of 
collecting statistics, dependence had, in the main, to be placed 
on the statement of uneducated people describing births and 
deaths, many of which took place long years before. Sup- 
posing even they remembered in all cases the number of each 
sex that died, they would still have to represent their own 
notions of the ages at which they did so, and the period that 
had elapsed since thope events Ijappeped. All, therefore, that 
can with confidence be asserted, is, that the best was done 
in the face of these iijevit^ble difficulties to eliminate error. 

For instance — and one will suffice— if it was required to 
ascertain the particulars of a child who had died. The 
mother was present ; the husband also sat close by, Some 
relation, also present, had a wife, or husband, or child, as the 
case might be, who had been a playfellow of the departed. Or 
the child was said by its mother to have been either so much 
older or so much younger than one standing before us. 
^^ For the sake of those who wish to utilise the statistics. Table 
^^hKo. 5 has been compiled from Table No. 4, which will render 
^^B|t easy to extract the most valuable points of information. 
^^m In order to obtain reliable data on which to base deduc- 
^^■tions as to Toda nature and Toda progress, it seems a matter 
^^P sufficiently important, to record with all the exactness that 
available information admits of. certain averages relative to 
the size of families, and the ages at which their women com- 
mence and also leave off child-bearing. The details of these 
points of information, collated from Tables No. 4 or 5, will, 
therefore, be found tabulated in Nos. 6 and 7 Tables. A point 
has been made, not to omit any of the instances of Table 4 
or 5, that might prove of value ; only the women in child- 
marriages, or those who having lately married, have not yet 
£tven birth to progeny, have been left out. 



% 



122 FAMILY STATISTICS. 

CHAP. We see from these tables that, 

XI. 

" ■ I. The earliest age at which women com- 

mence child-bearing is about . . 14 years. 

II. The average age at which women com- 
mence child-bearing is . . • .17*4 years. 

III. The average age at which women leave 

off child'bearing is .... 37-4 years. 

IV. Women bear children during a period of I9'6 years. 
V. The average interval between the birth 

of children is 3 years. 

VI. Including barren women, the average • 

size of families is • • . • •57 children* 
VII. Exclusive of barren women, the average 

size of families is . • • • .67 children* 



CHAPTER XII. 



RELIGION. 



I 



Prnyeri to Sun and Moon — The MysUrioiis cenfusid •mitk Gedhtad—No 
clear coHCCpHon of a Supreme Bring— The use of a Gud—Toda Belief— 
Amnir— Where situated— Sin, Punishment, little Cods, Spirits, iVitch- 
erafl—Toda Religious Belief, whence derived, 

f If by the word religion, we mean to imply devotion, piety, CHA! , 
' duty, as applied to the worship of God, Creator and Ruler ; , ^ 

then the Todas are most certainly an irreligious people, 
judging of them, as we can alone judge, by their actions ; 
whether we compare them by our own standard or through 
the rites and performances of simple races more in keeping 
with themselves. 

They salaam to the rising and setting sun — birsh — and the 
moon — tiggalu ' — at night, reciting the one formula of prayer 
which they use on all devout occasions ; danenma, mokh 
ultama, 21 ultama, er ultama, karr ultama, ellam ultama, 
the meaning of which has already been translated in note 5 
of Chapter VII. To see a man amongst his family, stand out 
on a moonlight night with hand to forehead, asking most 
gravely this blessing on his house, from one of the givers of 
light, is an impressive spectacle, though the address may have 
been made only to the moon. 

We see from this formula what they acknowledge to be the 
fact ; that they look on these luminaries as Gods, Lords — 
Dfir, Swami— not that they are, in the least degree, clear on 
the subject of their power, or the mode or limits of their 
' See note No.3of Chapter VII. 



124 



RELIGION. 



I 



action. They rest satisfied that they are Gods. B' 
• them, there is a tendency for everything mysterious or unset 
to ripen into Dfir; cattle, reWcs, priests, are, as we shall '. 
confused in the same category, until it would seem that D4i 
like Swimi, is truly an adjective-noun of eminence. 

They fence in those who perform what they coiisider 1 
offices, with rigid rules of conduct. But such offices, althougl^ 
from their point of view, holy, can barely be held to be i 
ligious: more perhaps on the confines, affording us sample! 
of the germs of religious belief and action and the growth c 
religion, from punctilious form. 

They do not address supplications, or confessions of sin, tofl 
any personal God, of whose attributes or power they enter4 
tain an even approximately clear conception. They have ttcM 
idols or images, either of loved and respected objects to 1 
courted, or of dreaded beings to be appeased : whether e 
present, as in house or village, or to be casually met with i 
groves, at springs, or on hill sides. They make no oblations»'l 
beyond the act of eating periodically a little buffalo ft 
displaying in its ceremonial, the rudimentary- stage of sacrificiafB 
or festive observance. In fact they can scarcely be said to! 
trouble tliemselves on the subject of religion proper. 

I am not prepared to say that these people have actually ■ 
no God : for they acknowledge the existence of Usuru^ SwSmi, \ 
the Lord above, the High God ; but it will be perfectly t 
dent to all who read through this book, that their conceptio 
of a Supreme Being is entirely without definition. Indcet 
almcst at a stroke of the pen, I can show this to be the ca 
for, the reason having been given why the Pekkan clan 1 
no 'holy place,' that it had no property: it was explained t 



» See Chapter VIII. 

• Usuni. In Tamil y and s are constantly interchangeable. Thus 
uyir or ugir Is lifi ; uyaru and u^anj are to be exalted, Uftid up. 
Kanarese, ac^— life, power. There may b 
uccha - kigk. [Pope.] 




RELIGION. 



125 



I 



me, that the Pekkans are poor and have few herds, therefc 
^tey have no occasion for a God to protect them. I see the • 
man now before me shaking his grave head, 'Aha, they don't 
want a God." 

' First divest your mind of cant,' said Dr. Johnson. The 
Toda anticipated that sage advice long years ago. What is 
the use of a God if not to protect life and property? And 
no property, no God ! I dwell on this phase of the primi- 
tive mind, for it will liberate us much from the necessity for 
searching for evidences of religious worship in the customs, 
whose description I am entering upon. 

The sum of real Toda belief is, that they were born, they 
and their cattle, somehow — rose out of the eartli. When they 
die they go to amn6r,' which is a world exactly like this ; 
whither their buffalos join them, to supply milk as in this 
estate — voild tout. They look on this migration from the 
nomad point of view : but do not appear to be quite clear 
whether they and their cattle go to amndr in the body or the 
■spirit. Some practical difficulties appear to present them- 
selves, to whichever belief they bend. The abstruseness of 
the question is acknowledged. They are satisfied that they 
do get there, and don't care to speculate and reopen a matter 
which has so long and so satisfactorily been settled ! 

A good opportunity presenting itself, in a visit with which 
I was favoured by an important religious character, I asked 
I'liim where amnflr was situate. He did not appear surprised 
* at the question, or in a moment's doubt as to the locality. 
Looking about him in the sky as if to ascertain the cardinal 
points of the compass ; as all Orientals do ; who living without 
clocks or barometers, read the signs in the heavens for guidance 

I * Amnfir, amnir, omunar = the next world. 
I NSr or n^da = district, country. This is Tamil. 
Oma is a difSculty, Yaman is the ' God a/ death.' 

Il seems to be^avan, which in Tamil = Mirre, and is sometimes used 
for tht other -world. In Taini!, ammai » the next stale or stage in trans- 
migration. [Pope.] 



126 



RELIGION. 



P*HAP. and information, he pointed direct to the west. ' Where the suiff 
p i ' goes down'* he said. The quiet certainty with which he spoke, 

1 then ceased to speak, was impressive, leaving a feeling of sad- 

■ ness as from the vibrations of an air just played, or of ' a tale 
H that is told ; ' to think that the place of their future residence — 

■ where Toda shall, without fail, meet Toda — was known to 
B them ; that this man in his simple belief should be so clear on 
B< a subject which has engaged the religious mind of refined 
K nations for ages in vain, 

H The Toda makes use of the word pipum for sin, but I more 

H than doubt if he has any word for hell. In reality neither one 

I nor tlie other subject engages his attention. What has already 

I been described, is his deep-grounded belief: any little matters, 

■ as sin and punishment, may be looked on as after-growths. He 
m has also Gods — alittle g should be sufficient for them — presiding 
I over certain hills and villages, but he seems to know nothing 
H about them. Spirits and ghosts — bhilt — devilry and witchcraft 
H — pilli — also occupy a position in his beliefs. But the Todas 
I are not communicative on these or indeed on any subject con- 
W nected with religion or the unseen. Most probably they have 
I but little to tell ; and superstitious dread of the invisible or 
I half-known, prompts them to keep that little, dark. 

B A reference to the vocabulary, will show that most words 

■ connected with what is commonly termed religion, are almost 
W pure Sanskrit : whilst those relating to the extraordinarily 
f simple practices in course of narration, are either much 
I corrupted Sanskrit, or are free of Aryan influence. From 
I these facts I deduce the possibility that prior to their 
I migration into India, the Aryas of that era, when probably 

of a somewhat similar stage of culture to the Todas, may have 
influenced their rudimental religious proclivitiea But that 
any ideas they now possess on religious subjects have come to 
them quite in modem times from Brahmanical sources ; through 



k 



2 of Chapter V. 




RELIGION. 127 

the Hindu Badagas, with whom they have for several genera- chap. 

XII 

tions been on intimate terms : whose mode of worship they , ' ^ 
have had opportunities of noticing : and with whom they have 
often conversed on elementary religious topics. Thus, as I 
have noted, they have seized on a few words, and the names 
of a score of small Gods connected with maladies and diseases, 
of whom they know nothing but their names ; but without 
having adopted a religion. 



THE BELL-GODS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE BELL-GODS. 

A religion based oit the eare of thi Cow— Milk a Divine fluid— The 
Cattle-btll, a Gad— The Belt-co-w-Her ancestral line— The RcU-god— 
ImtallaHoH of the Bell-cow- The TiriM— The sacred Herd— Bulls of 
the Herd^SanctificaXion of Bulls — Agnate law amongst the Todas; 
Femali succession for their Cattle — Antiquity of Bell-gods. 



Nothing amongst the peculiarities of this very peculiar 
■ people is more striking than the absorbing importance they 
attach to al! duties connected with the management of the 
buffalo and her chief product. The animal is the focus of all 
village life ; the nucleus or centre upon which their entire 
religio-social system is based. One cannot imagine the Toda 
apart from a consideration of his buffalo ; and when we reflect 
how entirely dependent the man is upon tlie animal — how, 
with only a light and pleasant expenditure of patience and 
perseverance, he finds the coarse grass of his hills turned into 
good nutriment ; the care of the buffalo, so far from appearing 
anything extraordinary, only fits into its natural place as a 
necessary sequence. We are reminded, too, that the milk-giver 
and the bull have been, and still are, objects of especial care 
and of worship amongst other races that own Western Asia 
as their cradle-land. It also carries us back to the time when 
man depended upon his flocks and herds for existence. We 
actually see him in process of forming a religion, based upon 
the care of the cow. 

'Few,' writes Mr, Tylor, 'who will give their minds to 
master the general principles of savage religion, will ever again 




■ THE BELL-GODS. 1 29 ■ 

think it ddiculous, or the knowledge of it superfluous to the CHAP. 
rest of mankind. Far from its beliefs and practices being a ^- ^ ^ 
rubbish-heap of miscellaneous folly, they are consistent and 
logical in so high a degree as to begin, as soon as even roughly 
classified, to display the principles of their formation and de- 
velopment ; and these principles prove to be essentially 
rational, though working in a mental condition of intense and 
inveterate ignorance.' ' 

Our friends appear to dream buffalo. Sitting, apparently 
' thinking of nothing at all," a man will pick up a bit of 
cane or forked twig from the ground, and like the typical 
Yankee is supposed to whittle a stick while he speculates, so 
the Toda will employ himself for an hour at a time, splitting 

^his bit of cane or rounding the little branches of his twig into 
the likeness of buffalo horns, as he muses. Children may be 
seen coming in from cattle-driving, with strings of these small 
horns. And these treasures are found lying about their 
houses and haunts. Two of them are shown in Photograph 
No. IS. 

In the history of most, if not of all nations, savage and 
civilised alike, we may trace the alliance, more or less intimate, 
of religion, in its various rites and performances, with food ; in 
its nature, source, or care, or in the occasions or symbols of 
its use. This correlation is certainly a marked feature in Toda 
customs. Though the Todas have no actual religion or system 
of faith leading to the performance of duties to a God, yet 
they hold to certain practices and certain habits in daily life, 
which are to them in the place of a religion ; being performed 
with all the strictness and certainty that should be bestowed 
on sacred observances. 

These performances or habits are intimately allied with 
tlie care and distribution of the divine fluid — milk. The 
buffalo is to a certain degree held sacred, as being the 



' Tylor, ' Primitive Culture,' voL L p. 11. 



I30 



THE BELL-GODS. 



chief gift of the Gods : and the fountain of all milk, 
- they hold the care and milking of these animals and the chaise 
of the dairy, to be amongst the highest and most respected 
offices. The buffalo is treated witli great kindness, even with 
a degree of adoration, by the people ; scarcely touched with 
the light wands they carry, but guided and called by a sort of 
buffalo- language which they understand, and obey with some 
intelligence. 

But they give away the young bulls to the Kotas. It has 
been a question whether or not they ever eat tJie flesh them- 
selves, and I experienced much difficulty in ascertaining what 
I now believe to be the truth ; that they part with the bulls, 
because, whilst they will not eat the flesh, they cannot permit 
them to crowd on land required for the grazing of the cows. 
That they do not sell them, may no doubt be in part attribut- 
able to the uncommercial nature of their dispositions. But I 
think it also possible that the Badagas and Kotas work on the 
sense of respect for the animal, which the Todasare known to 
entertain, to make it a custom not to dispose of the buffalo 
for money. Although it is certain that no Toda will eat buffalo 
flesh unless in part of the ceremonial described in Chapter 
VIII,, yet, curiously enough, they do not hesitate to mortgage 
even the cows to the Badagas, though knowing that in such an 
act, the chance must always exist of the animal's being seized 
for the non-fulfilment of the terms of the bond ; when of course 
it would be impossible to say what would become of them. 

There exists a marked connection between the buffalo and 
the chief material objects to which any form of religious service 
is paid ; viz., certain ancient cattle-bells, which originally came 
from amnflr, and though only cattle-bells — konku— yet by 
virtue of a great antiquity arc now venerated as Gods, and 
styled konku Der or mani Dtir.* This is the Toda faith. 

Every village drove does not own a bell, but certain bell- 

• KanVM Ail -Ml-god.msM Ait ~reUe-god. See Chapter XVII., note 6. 



THE BELUGODS, 



»3I 



o 

I 



COWS of the saCred herds only, which are attached to the holy 
Mands, termed tiri^ri,' The size of the droves varies, from . 
accidental circumstances, between the numbers lo and 5o: and 
somewhat in proportion to the dimensions of the herds, from 
one to three bell-gods belong to a tirierL 

The bell-cows, for whom, by tlie way, the Todas have 
no specific name, are not selected on account of their good 
milking qualities, their size or beauty, but are the descendants 
in direct female line from certain originals whose early history 
has been lost. I have the following information on the subject 
from the highest authority ; viz., a priest of the tiriSri. styled 
palal, retired from the active business of his calling. He told 
me that no matter how old and worthless the bell-cow might 
become, the bell belonged to her till she died : when, without 
fail, it was transferred to her daughter. Moreover, that if the 
mother should have left no such female issue, a bell-cow would 
be procured from one of the other tiri^ris : or the holy Mand 
would itself be broken up, and the entire herd amalgamated 
with that of some tirifiri still possessing a bell-cow. 

The bell-god is never worn by the bell-buffalo, but is 
always kept in the priest's house ; no one but a man of that 
office being permitted to touch or even to see it. 

The same holy man who gave me the above information, 
also described the installation of a new bell-cow. Twice a day, 
morning and evening, for three successive days, the priest 
waves the bell with his right hand, round and round the head 
of the bovine heiress, talking to it the while, much as follows; 
What a fine cow your predecessor was t 
How well she supported us with her milk I 
Won't you supply us in like manner.' 
You are a God amongst us ! 

Tirifiri --holy place. Tira or tiri is the recognised DrSvidian corrup- 
tion of the Sanskrit shrl '^ holy, sacred. 

Ari or iri, from the Drflvidian root, which is variously written ir, ur = ie, 
exist. Ur - a village, is fifom the same root [ Pope.] 



THE BELL-GODS. 

Don't let the tiri^ri go to ruin I 
Let one become a thousand ! 
Let all be well ! 
Let us have plenty of calves ! 
Let us have plenty of milk ! 



i 



During three days and nights the bell is kept fastened 
round the cow's neck. On the morning of the third day it is 
removed from her neck, and locjged in the priest's house. It 
is never worn again during that cow's lifetime. 

The entire tirifiri herd is far more sacred than any of the 
ordinary village droves of buffalos, and the bell-cows are infi- 
nitely more sacred than any other cows of the sacred drove. So 
far a^ I could ascertain : whilst the bell-cow is the direct lineal 
descendant, from mother to daughter, from some remote but 
sacred ancestor, the remainder of the tiri^ri herd are the 
offspring of some original drove, whose members are probably 
related to the bell-cows. 

A certain number of bulls are retained in the sacred herd ; 
those male calves which are not wanted being given away to 
the Kotas. The finer .animals are retained. When a young 
bull has arrived at mature age, and has proved his vigoui", ht 
undergoes a process of s an ctifi cation before he is permanently 
installed ; by being isolated for a day and night in a small 
pen in the sacred woods of the tirii^ri, during which time he 
is deprived of food, though allowed access to wa'ter. He is 
not a very sacred character. In fact it is permissible to 
introduce a bull from an ordinary drove, after due sanctifica- 
tion. 

It appears to me as somewhat remarkable that a people so 
fond of simple regulation and undeviating rule, should permit 
the principle of female succession amongst their cattle, whilst 
maintaining agnate law amongst themselves. I cannot admit 
the contrast between the two systems to be merely the result 
of accident. Knowing the direct simplicity and good sense of 



THE BELL-GODS. 



'33 



I 



the savage mind, I see the probability that once on a time, 
the scheme of inheritance and of kinship, both among them- . 
selves and for their buffalos, was identical ; viz., through the 
female line. And the more remotely ancient the mode of 
Toda life, and the nearer it approached to man's primieval con- 
dition, the greater the probability that the habits of animal 
and man approached one another in general similitude. 

Before proposing for consideration the conclusion which I 
draw from the facts of early identity and present difference in 
such customs, I will give an extract from a well-known work 
on primitive marriage. Mr. M'Lennan in striving to show 
' that the most ancient system in which the idea of blood- 
relationship was embodied, was a system of kinship through 
females only,' writes : ' considering that the history of all the 
races of men, so far as we know it, is the history of a progress 
from the savage state ; considering the social condition of rude 
tribes still upon the earth — remembering that the races which 
can be traced in history had all a previous history, which re- 
mains unwritten — it cannot seem a very strange proposition 
that there has been a stage in the development of human 
races when there was no such appropriation of women to par- 
ticular men — when, in short, marriage as it exists among civi- 
lized nations was not practised. We believe that we shall 
show, to a sufficient degree of probability, that there have been 
times when marriage in this sense was yet undreamt of. 
Wherever this has been the case, the paternity of children 
must have been uncertain ; the conditions essential to a system 
of kinship through males being formed, would therefore be 
wanting ; no such system would be formed ; there would be — 
there could be — kinship through females only.'' 

In Chapter XXVII. reasons for my belief are given, that 
with polyandry came the change from promiscuous unions and 
kinship through the female line, to inheritance through males 



' M'Lennan, ' Primitive Marriage.' 



134 THE BELL-GODS. 

CHAP, only — ^the s}rstem which now obtains amongst these people — 
^» , ' -^ in which argument I am glad to find Mr. M'Lennan almost 
entirely with me. 

Now therefore, I would advance the suggestion, that the 
system of kinship in cattle, through their cows^ is perhaps 
contemporaneous with the age when the Todas also, prior to 
the introduction of polyandry, held to the practice of kinship 
through the female line. In which belief are grounds for 
confidence in the very high antiquity of the Toda bell-gods. 

The worship of the bully may possibly be a further develop- 
ment of cattle worship. 



TIRIERI PRIESTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

TIRlfiRI PRIESTS. 

7"Af Pmi—The Kdvim—The Pdldl is a God^The Ptiki Clan Urmeti 
• Sous «J God '—Duties of the PMdl—No mysteries—Sacred nature of 
Priests — The Pdldl becomis man again — Purification /or holy orders — 
Thi Tfide tree: its botanical nanu and distribution— The use e/ the 
Tude, an ancient practice — The Pdldl enters on his duties. 

Each tirieri, with its drove of cattle, Is in the chaise of an 
ascetic milkman or priest, styled pildl,' and an equally ascetic, v 
though not equally holy, herdsman or kSvilSl.* And according 
as the herd may be small or lai^e, there are found from one 
to two of the former, and from one to three of the latter, 
attached to the tirifiris. ' • 

The p^lfil, whose personal acquaintance I had made in the 
course of taking information on the interesting subject of the 
bell-god, was a man of about thirty-five years of age, who had 
spent some fifteen of them in holy orders, vacating his post in 
favour of a brother. The effect of that lengthy period of ascetic 
and solitary life on his personal appearance, was somewhat 
striking. It was perhaps de riguair for one who had so long 
been in sacred office to wear his hair dishevelled, and to neglect 
the cleanliness of his person : but the more than usually 
motionless eyebrow, the gloomy solemnity of his look and his 



' Pfliai, pSl, is the DfAvidian word for miik\ 61^ person. 

' Kkvm,k^va\^ guard; k\-person. 

The former is a Turkish word. Yel Vk is the DrSvidian root for proted, 
guard. In Tamil we have a kind of reduplication of it; thus, pilu^kdl. 
The Sanskrit corresponding root is pi [Pope.] 



136 ' TIRIERI PRIESTS. 

fixed wooden face, were not the results of fashion, but the actioi 
of a second nature that had been moulding himfor years. 

But bread and sugar hath its charms. Under its influence^ j 
he softened out and became affable. Waiting till he hat 
finished the meal I had given him, the first of a series i 
questions suitable to an ex-pi]t\, was put. ' Js it true thai 
Todas salute the sun ? ' I asked : ' tschSkh ! ' he replied, 
' those poor fellows do so, but mc,' tapping his chest, ' I, a 
God ! why should I salute the sun ? ' At the time, I thought 
this a merfe ebullition of vanity and pride, but I have since had 
opportunity of testing the truth of his speech. The pSlSl for 
the time being is not merely the casket containing divine 
attributes, but is himself a God. 

Let me here describe the duties of the paiais and the mode 
of their ordination. These holy men, who must invariably be 
selected from the Peiki clan — the members of which style 
themselves D^r mokh, or children or sons of God or of the 
Gods — are not in any way educated to their office ; nor by 
mature age, superior talent, wealth, or other form of influence, 
are they of themselves worthy of unusual respect. They are 
just ordinary ignorant villagers, with sufficient shrewdness or 
impecuniosity, to note in the lonely post, certain very material 
advantages, combined with those of a more ethical nature, 
sufficient to compensate for themonotonous duties and tsola- 
tion of the life. . * 

No Toda being able ejfher to read or write, and each p4141 
l^ing as absolutely ignorant as the last,and as his own successor 
^ill be, it fe quite clear there can be no dogmas of an abstruse 
nature, and none butf the most simple rites to transmit at time 
of relief. 

The universally defective size in the organs of Caution and^ 
Secretiveness observable in the tribe, produces an open nature^ 
of disposition, such as renders it almost impossible to conceive 
the existence of any very mystic rites among therti. What- 
ever is done in these tiri^ris, is known to every intflligent 




AD A M AND EVE 

Al-AD-AD'm = man. AVV=mother. 

OF THE REIKI CLAN - Dtp, WQV^V* ^r =,^i*^ Q^ 'i^^- 




TIRliRt PRIESTS. 



137 



I 



■member of the male community, and I have little doubt, 1 
every inquisitive woman also. That these performances have ■ 
hitherto remained unknown to the English public, arises from 
the simple cause, that they have not been carefully enquired 
into. I have before stated that the people do not talk freely 
on subjects they hold to be sacred ; from some feeling of awe 
[Or reverence. But, if spoken to quietly, they will be found to 
' l>e like sieves, and to reveal everything they know. 

Thesimplicity of their faith and the crudenessoftheir rites is 
such, that the circumstance of their traditions being handed 
down by memory, is deprived of any element of the wonderful, 
more especially so when it is remembered that the entire detail 
of each tradition is known throughout the tribe. Notwith- 
standing, nothing is more possible than that names, rites, and 
traditions, transmitted in such fashion, may undergo a certain 
degree of change in the course of generations. How can 
there be mysteries without a permanent priesthood ? 

Not only pSUIs but kSvildls also, though mostly married 
men, yet live celibate lives, separating themselves from family 
and relations during the period of their holy vocations. The 
pdiai, as being by far the more sacred, may be touched by no 
one on earth but a pSlSl, not even by his fellow-labourer and 
servant, the kSvilSI. The breath even of a human being is 
defilement — not so that of a buffalo — men must therefore 
keep at a respectful distance ; which appears to be about five 
yards. Women are not permitted to approach either tirieri 
or holy men. Even the pAiai's father must bow down before 
him. He is a God, and for the time loses his personal name, 
being known only as the pdlil of such a tirieri. 

These sacred characters may however resign their posts 
when they tire of their solitude, so soon as a substitute can be 
found willing to devote himself to the life of celibacy and 
privation. And the pal£Ll may become man again, by the simple 
process of setting aside his black mantle: though he retains 



TIRIERI PRIESTS. 

CHAP, through life, amongst his fellow-men, a large amount of 
• ■ t — ' respect, as having once been a God. 

The following description of the process, which all men 
undergo In the course of being sanctified to the performance 
of any holy duty, will prove interesting. 

For the space of a week — ettn.ll ; literally speaking, eight 
days, and corresponding to in acht tagen in German — the 
novitiate must remain day and night alone in the woods of 
the tirigri, without a particle of clothing and with only a fire 
to protect him from the severity of the climate. He beats 
with a stone, the bark off a branch of the tilde* tree, which he 
collects. Then three times each day, morning, noon, and 
evening, he performs the following ceremony. Squeezing 
some of the juice of the bark, into a leaf-cup containing water 
from the stream or spring, he raises the cupfull with the 
right hand to his forehead, in token of respect : then lowering 
it to his mouth and drinking off the contents, passes the empty 
leaf round over his head and left shoulder, then depositing it 
behind his right side. This formula is repeated three times, 
using a fresh leaf each time. Next, he takes the remainder 
of the bark, and rubs his naked body all over with it, washing 
himself immediately in the fresh water. On the eighth day he 
is competent to assume charge of his office. 

The week's ordeal has been extremely severe, both in point 
of exposure and of solitude, and one well calculated to make 
a suitable impression on a man who is about to undertake a 
solemn duty. The kivildl has supplied him with food from 
the tirieri all this time, and there is reason for believing that 
the p41Sl and kAviUl see that the novitiate does not slur the 
proper performance of the rites. 

The Todas have no distinctive word to express purification, 
but describe the effect by saying sari * uddi, ' he is right,' by 
the process. 

» Tflde, tflrc, ihdre, tQrT[u-fl/ArV-t*/o/'jM«fl//j-Ar«*j. Tamil [Pope,] 
* Sari. In DrSvidian ^ari = right. [Pope.] 




THE TUDE OR SACRED BUSH, 

LAPONS. BDW & ARROW. USED AT WeQtl\**t.^ %. f M'A^.V.W.V^ . 



TIRIERI PRIESTS. 



I 



bush ; yet taken in connection with its use for sanctifying pur- . 
poses, it may be held to imply that it is tlu bush above all 
others. It isa very common little tree on these hills, fragile, and 
by all accounts, possessing no remarkable properties in flower, 
seed,' or sap. I am indebted to the courtesy of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Beddome, Conservator of Forests, for its botanic 
names, viz., Meliosma simplicifolia, alias Millingtonia. 

Dr. Hooker, Director of the Kew Gardens, has obliged me 
■with the following valuable information as to the diffusion of 
the tree ; a point on which I have been desirous to obtain the 
most reliable account, hoping that the localities might form 
geographical links by which the Todas might be traced to 
other tribes within or beyond the boundaries of Hindustan. 
' The distribution of the plant,' Dr. Hooker is so good as 
to write, 'is Western and Eastern Himalaya, from Simla 
eastward. Khassia, Silhet, and Mishmi hills in Assam. 
From the Concan to Courtallam in the western Peninsula, 
It certainly does not inhabit Persia, the Caucasus, or South 
Russia, and probably not even Beluchistan." 

It was important to establish, if the race of which the Todas 
form a tribe, brought with them from Western Asia the use 
of the tQde, the Millinglonia. It would now seem probable 
that they brought with them, merely, the already established 
practice of self-purification with a sacred plant, and not finding 
in the country of their adoption that which they had been 
accustomed to use when in their own land, they elected the 
tQde in its place. If the views expressed in the last chapter, 
as to the antiquity of the rules of cattle inheritance — making 
the bell-cow a descendant by the female line from some remote 
ancestor — be considered of value, then some degree of support 
is also afforded to show the collateral practice of purification 
by the use of a sacred plant, to be also very ancient. 

It would be interesting to know if other broken tribes of 
the pre-Aryan — Dravidian — race, now living in various tracts 



I40 TIRlfeRI PRIESTS. 

CHAP, of India, utilise this plant, whose picture is given in photograph 
3,Yl. No. is. 

The tftde is not used for any other rite or for any other 
purpose than the purification of candidates for holy orders. 

When the aspirant has thus prepared himself for the per- 
formance of the most sacred duties a Toda has any conception 
t)f, he proceeds to the tirifiri close by, where the pil4I whom 
he is about to relieve, awaits his arrival. I was told by my 
Toda friend, that he enters on his new avocations without 
further ceremony. Simply, the sacred relics and the bell-cows 
are pointed out to him, and his duties explained. 



PRIESTLY DUTIES. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PRIESTLY DUTIES. 

Kfiidl'i daily routim— -Salutes the sacred Herd— Milks the Cattle—Uba- 
- tioHS to the Btll-gods^-Names of Toda Cods— Does the conception of 
invisible Gods arise from deficient organ of Form? — Todas revere 
Light, uot Fire— Who is the Kdvildl f—Pdldl demomtrates that he is 
Hn'er touched— Milk held in religious regard— P4141 collectt KStu for 
hit Mand. 

The dailyroutine of the pilil's mysterious office was described CHAP. 1 
to me nearly in the following words. ' On rising in the mom- • 

ing, 1 wash face, hands, and teeth, with the left hand.' In 
daily human life he had invariably used the right hand for 
this purpose ; such being the custom with all Orientals cer- 
tainly, who, eating with their fingers, find it necessary to reserve 
the right hand for that especial object But remember the 
p^al is now a God, and to the pure all things are pure — 
fact! 

'Then entering the inner room — uig drsh — of the house,' 
which is reserved for dairy purposes, the outer room — porram 
51g Srsh — being the pSlil's sleeping apartment, ' I make a 
leaf-lamp, into which I put clarified butter and s wicks, thus,' 
spreading out his fingers. I could not ascertain if the number 
5 is essential, but it appeared to me to be so. ' The lamp is 
put into a niche in the wall, opposite the bells, which hang on 
the separate prongs of a stick thrust into the thatch of the 
roof And I light in silence, nor salute either light — belak — 
or relics — manL' 

' Having taken up my wand and honnu or milk-pall, which ' 



1-42 



PRIESTLY DUTIES. 



is a bamboo joint, used as a pail to contain milk, ' I go out to 
■ my buffalos. They are all expecting to be milked, and turn 
towards me as I stand at the gate of the pen. I salute them 
by holding the wand in the right hand, with the honnu 
hanging from the fingers of the same hand. 1 bring the whole 
to my forehead.' Here rising, with stick in hand and my 
penknife thrust between his fingers, he enacted the pantomime 
of saluting the sacred herd. Moving his body on his legs as 
a pivot, he turned slowly from right to left in silence, describing 
a small arc of a circle, as if to include the whole of a herd 
standing crowded in the fold before him. He did so without 
bowing, keeping his body nearly erect throughout, and witli- 
out speaking. 

Noticing his silence, he replied to my enquiry, ■ I do not, 
like the common people in the Mands, say danenma, mokh 
ultama, and all the rest of it. No, and I don't say nin 
arzbini.'! He is now a God, and quite the superior of any 
buffalo. 

' I alone, or if the drove is large, assisted by a fellow-piiai, 
milk the cattle — the kAvilSl ^|ay not do so — lodging the 
honnus of milk in the dairy. 

' On entering the inner room of the dairy, I go up to the 
bells, and dipping my hand into the milk ' — here makes a 
little cup of the top joints of his fingers — 'pour a few drops 
on each bell three times, muttering with each libation the 
names of the following Gods : — 



Anmung^no 
Beligoshu 



GodingStho 
Dekul4ria 



Kazudiva.' ^HH 

The p41Sl being himself a God may with propriety mention 
the names oi h.\s fclloia-Gods, a license which is permitted to 
no one else to do. 

• Nin arzbini = / adore thcc. See Chapter XVII., on the 6lud Mand, 
for the application of these words. 



PRIESTLY DUTIES. 



143 



' These are grjod Gods, Gods of the whole Toda tribe, and 
not Gods of my tirieri only. I have never seen them. They • 
are invisible, but ever present with us.' 

Can it be possible that the invisible— shapeless — nature of 
Toda Gods, is a conception occasioned by the deficient 
organ of Form, which I have already noted as being a cranial 
peculiarity of this people? Was the faculty small with the 
Jews also ? 

' I then proceed to make nei from the previous day's milk. 
After which, I prepare my own and the kSviiai's food. The 
last thing at night is to replenish the lamp.' 

There were three bell-gods in my informant's tirieri. He 
said that in some there were two, in another only one ; but in 
none more than three. Axes for cutting fuel are kept by the 
kivildl in his own house in the tirieri, apart from the dairy. 
They are tabued to other people, and for other purposes, 

I was careful to enquire from this man if the people in 
saluting the sun and moon, and he in placing lights in the 
tirifiri, worshipped light — belak, or fire — di^th. The reply 
was satisfactory ; he distinctly repudiated the notion of the 
adoration of fire. 

It has been stated that the pai41 may not be touched by 
anyone on earth, save by a pdl41, during the period of his 
priesthood, not even by the kftvilSl. It will be seen by what 
follows, that the kSvilil also, though not to be compared with 
his master in point of sanctity — one indeed being a God, 
whilst the other is only a man — yet shares the exclusiveness 
of his life. He too has been sanctified by his influence of the 
tCide, and lives apart from the world : yet his office is of an 
inferior degree. He devotes his life to the duties of herding 
the cattle on the hill-sides, cutting firewood, et cetera : but 
he may not milk the cows, nor touch the relics, or approach 
within several paces of the p^lil. Thus whilst he is an associate 
in the austere privations of the life to which he has devoted 
himself, yet does not participate in the glory of the office. 



144 



PRIESTLY DUTIES. 



Curious to form an opinion as to whether in the unheetted 
seclusion of their sanctuary, these recluses preserved them- 
selves as untainted by contact with man as I had been told, 
I ventured to express to the pSlal a doubt as to the possibility 
of his giving his servant daily food, and of selling the produce 
of hie dairy, without touching anyone. He at once said he 
would show me. 

He asked for three somethings — anythings: looked up to 
the trees for suitable leaves. What does the gentleman drink 
from ? I gave him three tumblers, with the bright and spark- 
ling appearance of which he appeared gratified : something 
worthy of the subject. Much pleased : now he could show: 
couldn't he just show ? Sitting himself with one glass in hand, 
on a low wall, to represent the tCiar of the tiri^ri, on which 
he pictured himself squatting as he had so often done during 
the last fifteen years, he placed the second glass on the 
ground immediately below him, near which a Toda companion, 
impersonating the k4viiai, stood waiting. Another Toda was 
sent to a distance to act the part of a purchaser with a third 
glass, which having set on the ground, he retired a few paces. 
Now feigning, the pilSl poured his nei from the first to the 
second tumbler, which the kivildl then carried off, pouring 
its contents into the third tumbler. As the kSviI41 stepped 
back with the money which he picked up off the ground, the 
purchaser came forward and took away the glass full of nei. 
' See,' he said, ' am I not paid for my nei without being 
touched ? ' 

This impromptu pantomime was acted with so much justice 
and gravity, and all three men, though not pSlils, understood 
their several parts so thoroughly, I could no longer doubt that 
the persons of these holy men were inviolable. I obtained 
also a glimpse — the truth of which further observation has 
tended to confirm — how the rites and ceremonies of an un- 
lettered race may be transmitted almost unchanged from 
generation to generation. Publicity, combined with the 



PRIESTLY DUTIES. 



145 



itity of character which forms the marked peculiarity of 
extremely primitive races, and common interests, are the - 
watchwords. The whole tribe is of one mind, and as un- 
changeable in disposition as a herd of dumb animals. 

A certain amount of superstitious, or shall we say religious, 
regard is paid to the article milk, and in a less degree to the 
honnu which holds it. Until of late years, milk would never 
be adulterated. The honnu is tabued for ordinary purposes ; 
indeed the people do not like it to be taken up carelessly ; 
preferring that it be not touched at all. In this sensitiveness, 
one notices the feeling which has no doubt participated in 
forming some of the caste rules of the Aryas. As might be 
anticipated, the milk from the sacred herd is held in still 
greater reverence ; the holy men of the tirieri may consume 
as much of it as they please, but what is over must be made 
into mi before being sold ; it must not leave the tirieri in its 
natural form. 

' The nei which we don't eat ourselves, I sell to the Badagas, 
who in return supply me and my family with grain, clothes, 
and a little money.' Very little of the last commodity pro- 
bably. Thus as wc observe, the inducement to become a pSISl, 
over and above the glory of position, is the profit from the 
sale of nei of the sacred drove. A very neat perquisite for 
' the Sons of God,' with which to repair broken fortunes. 

The pSIal rarely leaves the tiridri Mand, but he occasion- 
ally visits the Badagas villages ; obliging the people, through 
influence of his supposed powers of witchcraft, and the great 
sanctity attaching to his person, to comply with his demands 
for little luxuries of food, and for the grain due to his tirifiri 
as kUtu. He has nothing whatever to do with births, mar- 
riages, or deaths, though he is sometimes consulted for the 
adjustment of disputes. 



THE TlRIERl. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



THE TIRIERI.' 



A Tirifri Mand tiescribed — Nantes of Tirih-i— We visit the TirUri and 
set the Bell-gods — The holy Domain — The Priests are away — Who 
trtcUd these upright Stones* — The Priests return — A Bargain struck 
, — ' Gods of our Fathers' — ' These be your Gods' .'.' 

CHAP,. A tirieri Mand, which is the residence of the pdlSI and 

. ' - kSvilSI, consists of two houses ; the one a dairy or pilthchi, 
in which the ptliai lives and makes his nei, the other a house 
for the kavilSl and his implements for cutting fuel. The two 
houses are a little apart, and separated by. the tilars which 
surround them. A cattle pen, also encompassed by its wall 
or hedge, occupies a position close by. The site is in- 
variably a spot secluded by natural advantages from contact 
with the outer world, and having tlie usual adjuncts of water, 
grazing and wood land. 

There are at the present time, five tiriiris belonging to the 
tribe — there have been more — whose names are as follows ; — 
PlJrth Kudar J 

M4r Markush ^| 

Puzhash. ^ 

And exactly in the same manner as I have explained in 
Chapter VI. that ordinary Mands have their duplicates and 
even triplicates, so these tirieri Mands have also their corre- 
sponding sites to which the little colonies move at certain 
seasons, for the sake of fresh pasturage. 

' Thederivationof the word has been given in noie3 of Chapter XIII., 
on the Qell-gods. 



THE TIRIERI. 



"47 



Having ascertained that the tirifiri, with its sacred herd and CHAP, 
its mapi d^r. was indeed llie mainspring of the entire religious ■— " , "--■ 
faith and social system of the Todas, it became a matter of 
great moment to ascertain by personal inspection the secrets 
of its penetralia. Our ex-pk\k\ had indeed with great apparent 
sincerity divulged the whole of the hidden mysteries, even to 
the extent of naming the Gods of his forefathers ; names held 
in great veneration : when spoken, only pronounced in an 
under-tone : and which no European, and probably no native 
beyond the tribe, had ever previously been allowed to hear. 
Here would be the test of his veracity both on this subject 
and in other cognate matters on which we had consulted him. 

We must see the inside of a tiri^ri : we must view the 
relics, the Gods. Such was the programme : and money would 
of course perform the work of the magic words ' open sesame,' 
Calling therefore at our friend's Mand, we readily induced him 
to accompany us to view his old tiridri. 'But you must not 
go close to the dairy' he said. Oh no ! 

We strolled along the pretty slopes of the verdant hills to- 
gether, and he guided us over the squashy bogs, and through 
the ever-silent woods : and again out on the green wild, and 
through further nestling woods, with the cheery spring sun 
overhead ; all in the direction of his tiri^ri. 

No one to overhear us out on this prairie !" Now is the time ! 
' Biiltaben ' — such was his mundane name — 'we want logo 
into the dairy of the tiriCri. You are an old pS141. Here is 
money.' ' Just to peep in at the door from a distance .'' he asked. 
' No, but to look at the relics in the inner room.' He stopped 
short, tucked his stick under one arm. and pressing the tips of 
all his fingers to his eyes, exclaimed, ' May both my eyes drop 
from their sockets, but I cannot do such a thing.' After a 
pause. ' The Gods would vacate the tiri^ri Mand if anyone un- 
sanctified entered it, and its p414l would be ruined,' 

This was awkward. Another suggestion : Let as see the 
relics. Let the pSUl bring them outside that we may view 



148 THE TIBIERI. 

them. We won't go near,' Ah ! that is Teasible ! The bar- | 
gain is struck forthwith. 

On we went again, much refreshed by our success, cross- 
questioning our guide on points of religion till he was fuddled. 
' On he fares and to the border comes.' 

Rising to the ridge of a prolonged knoU, he stopped and pointed 
below : ' There I ' 

Down we go into the sacred hollow. The solemn Toda, still 
more grave, some enthusiasm kindling his dark eye as he looks 
across at the place where for half a lifetime he had been a God. 
Over some little bums, pEist a group of sacred calves, looking 
in their dirt and stolid impudence, anything but reverential 
towards the ex-p^\i\ — they were of this year's growtli, and did 
not recognise him — up again out of the hollow : when, as we 
ni:ar the rounded crest of a long hillock, we find ourselves 
opposite two neat, but undersized houses, with a dilapidated 
buffalo pen. 'Thetiri^ri Mand 1 Don't go near ! ' So, like 
shying horses we circle round the spot, til! we reach the ridge. 

We are at the sanctuary, and in the middle of the holy 
domain. The pilills and k^viiais arc out. We will sit down 
and note the place till they return. 

A pure green cameo of wide extent ! the edge formed by 
an amphitheatre of hill, crowning 

' with her enclosure green 
As with a rural mound, the champain head.' 

The arena filled with ceaseless undulations of grazing land; 
winding through which, a noble stream, and a score of spark- 
ling rivulets cascading down the distant hills, A long tongue 
of grass land projects from one side of the hilly margin into 
the weald." At the root of the tongue, a wood ; on the margin 
of which the sanctuary, near which we sit, 'taking notes.' 

Wood, water, herbage, in combination with a seclusion so 
complete, as to include a deep sense of perpetuity. Surprising 
rest and peaceful beauty ! 




THE TlRlfiRl. 



"49 



I 



Except the single notes of birds, rich-sounding in tlie 
vibrations of the deep wood : the distant nervous warble of « 
the lark overhead, and the hum of the busy bee in its hurry, 
not a single sound is to be heard over the whole wide 
expanse. The tirigri cattle are browsing far away in the 
surrounding hollows : or like specks, may be seen dotting the 
sides of the distant hills. 

The vertical sun is omnipresent. The holy men, I have 
said, were away. 

Out on the extreme west is the single Malcurti Peak,* 
'where the sun goes down.' Beyond is amn6r. 

How near simple appositcness approaches to taste, 
where the country is lov^ily and the subject purely bucolic! 
Do I confuse the sense, with taste for scenery, or have I 
hitherto done the Toda intellect an injustice? Such are my 
reflections as I note this perfectly selected site. When I now 
remember that the funeral-Mands— of which we shall shortly 
read — which I have seen, are certainly free from marked 
beauty, I must at least acknowledge their appreciation in the 
advantage and suitability of locality to be a perfect talent. 
Had the Toda really a love for the beautiful apart from 
utility, would he not have some words in his language, or a 
flower about his house to express the taste .' 

Looking at the superb glow with which the sun liglits up 
equatorial landscapes, one ceases to wonder at, but indeed 
admires the instinct which leads those bom and bred under 
its influence, to worship light. 

Pdlils have not returned. No occupation then but to bully 
our Toda. This is done till he tries to escape questions by 
feigning sleepiness. Keep him in motion 1 ' Who erected those 
two stones .' ' ' The pdlils, who tired of their solitude, raised 
them to while away time.' Never ! The man is sleepy I 
Todas bring two large rocks about four feet long each, up a 
steep hill, without an object 1 Never ! Practical, lazy, Toda 1 

» See note 2 of Chapter V. 



I50 



THE TIRIERI. 



Archaeologists have observed on such stones, which are to 
be frequently seen on these hills, and have asserted that 
they are worshipped by the Todas as lingoits. Whatever 
the origin of these stones, one thing is absolutely certain ; thatifl 
the Todas do not regard them in any way. H 

'They come,' said he at last, pointing to the hills near \is.M 
Sure enough, four little figures — two clothed in black — are ap- 
proaching in the Jerky step of men descending a steep incline, 
and at intervals — no touching allowed — 'Listen! O listen!' 
shouts our conductor over the intervening hollow. They all 
stop. ' Two gentlemen have come to see you : let the k4vil41s 
remain behind, and you come o-o-o-o-on.' S!y fox, our 
Toda ! There are to be no witnesses ! 

In the space of a few minutes, two gentlemen in black 
mantles — lamp-black and- mustard-oil — with wands in their 
hands, keeping step as they walked,* had come up to about 
ten yards of us. We all sit down inside the circle of our own 
shadows. 

Time is valuable ; for the k4vil31s are waiting ; so the inter- 
view is short We are not to touch : merely to look at the 
maiji from a distance. We are not to approach the dairy ; 
pdl41s and kSviUls to be paid. 

There is no delay, no holy dilatoriness in bringing out 
' the Gods of their fathers.' If we could have watched the 
pSiais with our eyes, we must have seen them bound in 
through the outer door of the dairy, scramble through the 
inner small one, and wrench off the treasures ; for in less than 
a quarter of a minute, they were standing before us holding 
their Gods in their hands. 

Two buffalo-bells — konku — apparently of copper wifli 
some brass, dented and old ; might be of any age ; one about 
S inches diameter and 6 inches high, the other a little less, 

e 1 had noticed Todas keeping step in walking. 
dia, even amongst trained native soldiers ofT 



' This is not the first ti 
>t unusual sight in 






THE TrRIERI. 

An axe. a sort of hatchet-knife, and a small knife. These CH^J 
latter certainly did not appear old ; they were kept tolerably • — r 
bright, and did not look worn, either by use or from the effects 
of polishing. The two last had wooden handles. 'These 
be your Gods ' ! 

In reply to the enquiry, if the bells had clappers, the a 
was instantaneous, energetic and simultaneous ; that they had 
not clappers : if they had, they would have been cattle- 
bells — konku — but these were Gods — Dcr. The question 
must have been asked before. 




152 THE TIRliRI. 

CHAP. longer;' which bdng interpreted, meant that the kivilils 
>■■ , ' ^ would be coming. So, having taken a sketch of them, we 
threw some money to the pMiUs. 

' Don't tell the kivilik when you pass them, that you have 
paid us money/ I promised ; at which they chuckled. ' And 
don't tell any one you have seen the relics.' Phew ! ! 



THE £tUU MAND. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



THE ETUD MAND. 



tOuloms of the Village Dairy or P&lthcht— Duties of the P&lkarpAl^ 
Important difference ui Ike duties of the P&ldl and PAlkarpdl—The 
Tarvdl — The insid* of a Dairy — The Dairy of an khid Mand is a 
Shrine -The Badagas term it Mui Mand: why f— Todaform of oath. 

The customs and ceremonies of the tiritlri or Toda cathe- CHAP. 
dral — seat of a divine milkman, established as the medium of __,_L. 
conveying the Gods' gift to man^ — are repeated, though in less 
awfully sacred form, in every Mand of the tribe ; in the village 
dairy or p41thchi. 

The configuration of the dairy has already been described 
in Chapter VI. 

Similarly as one or more nearly-naked recluses belonging to 
the Peiki clan, are established as p4141s for the care of the 
tiri^ri, assisted by their k^viiais ; so a lesser luminary, generally 
from the same clan, is the unclothed, ascetic, but more mildly 
sacred pSlkarp41, ' who, also living eti gar^ott, but without 
any pretensions to God-head, presides over the dairy of each 
village, helped under certain circumstances by a somewhat * 
similar character in the vorshil.' Both of these men also, have 
been purified in that wonderful juice which qualifies to the 
holy offices of milking bufTalos and the charge of relics. 

I state that the p^lkarpSl is generally, though not always, 
of the Peiki clan ; for as I observe, the Peikis permit the 



' PaikarpSL See note 4 of Chapter VI. 
' See note 4 of Chapter VI 1 1 . 



»54 



THE ETUD MAND. 



unprofitable office of kavilal, and that of pilkarp41 in villages, 
to be performed by members of the inferior clan of Pekkan. 
Moreover, in the care of dairies belonging to their own clan, 
the Peikis seem often to be content with the services of ft 
Pekkan. I do not feel certain of the cause of this arrangement: 

It is the duty of the palkarpal to milk the village cattle^ 
and to store and partition amongst the various families of the 
Mand, the shares of the divine fluid and of the nei he has 
made therefrom. 

The village pdlthchi appears not to have any lights ; for the 
reason perhaps, that it has no relics. However that may b^ 
the pSlkarp^l and his companion, the vorshSl, may alone pene- 
trate even the outer room of the dairy. Men and boys freely 
enter so far as the precincts of the tOar, and village feasts are 
often g^ven close about the outside. But the dangerous sexl 
are not permitted, even near the wall : and in the instanra^ 
of more important villages, termed etud Mand,' they may 
not approach within about one hundred feet of it 

The duties of the pilkarpSl in these paithchis are vetyj 
similar to those of the palil in the tirieri. The only differ*] 
ences, appearing to arise from the tatter acting throughout, the' 
part of a God, the equal of his own relics, which are also' 
Gods, and as the superior of his cattle, the gift of the Gods : 
whereas the former is merely a holy man engaged in the 
service of the Gods. 

Thus, we have seen in Chapter XV, the pSlSl saluting 
cattle, as a God in Toda opinion, should do — in silence, 
the palkarpil, in making his obeisance, does so as their servant! 
or dependent, saying, danenma, mokh ultama, SI ultama, it] 
uitama, karr ultama, ellam ultama,* Moreover, when he carrii 
his honnu, containing milk, into the dairy, he repeats 
formula as he crawls in through the inner door. 



I 



' ^tud. This word 
Ut—lifliip. [Pope.] 
* Sec note s of Chapter VII. 



aJIied ID the Drividian r 



THE ETUD MAND. 



When the pahhchi belongs to an ^tud Mand, the relics CHAP;J 
■ >vithin are D^r. And the paikarpSl being only a humble ■ 



I 



servant, does not presume to mention the names of these Gods, 
as the deified p41al in Ms dairy, may with the greatest propriety 
do. But in pouring a few drops of milk, three times on each 
relic, he merely mutters nin arzbini, nin arzbini, nin arzbini 
1 adore thee, I adore thee, I adore thee. 

Mr. MetE tells me that in certain cases an additional 
servant, the tarval,' would sometimes be employed. His 
exact occupation is not understood. 

Evidently there are dairies and dairies. There is the p&lthch 
of the unimportant village which is merely a dairy, in chaise 
perhaps of a stiipling. Such a one I have entered, and will 
describe. There is the dairy which is manifestly something 
more ; that belonging to an ^tud Mand, And there is the 
most sacred dairy of all ; that which appertains to the tirieri ; 
the holy of holies, already described. 

In all cases, whether the charge be big or small, the 
servants of the sacred house, are by virtue of their office, 
treated with respect by the people ; tiiey are spoken of in an 
undertone and in a reserved manner : they are saluted : 
neither they nor their implements may be touched. 

I had made several unsuccessful efi'orts to penetrate the 
dairy of an Ctud Mand, but was always discovered when 
seemingly on the eve of success. Taking advantage therefore 
of a fog I paid a visit to the pSlthchi of an ordinary Mand, 
which I had observed, not to be much watched, and to which 
a wood afforded means of secret approach. The p4lkarp£l 
was fortunately absent, so crawling in, I could observe at 
leisure. The outer room was fitted up in every way as an 
ordinary dwelling, suited to the simple requirements of a 
bachelor of the olden time ; an axe for cutting wood was 

' Tarvll. In Tamil we have taravu = the order of a masler or superior. 
The forms, tara, lam in all Drlvidian dialects, have kindred ideas. 
[Pope.] 



THE ETUU MAND. 



lying in a corner, and the man's bed was on one side i 
■ the door. The door in the wooden partition wall which led 
to the inner room or dairy proper, was of unusually small 
dimensions — about a cubit high, by half a cubit broad — and 
blocked up with a slab of stone. This I removed, and after 
penetrating the dairy, closed it behind me. 

I now struck a light and leisurely examined everything in 
roof, and on floor. The inventory was of most simple 
detail ; viz., the usual fireplace of three small stones — one at 
back, and one at each side — an earthenware vessel or two, and 
a few honnus for holding milk. No bell, no relic, nor lightsy 
nor niche in wall. Only a large pair of buffalo horns, made 
with unusual care, of bamboo bound with cane, which I found 
thrust into the thatch ; and several smaller horns made from 
twigs ; all of which will be found represented in photograph 
No. 1$. Without doubt there were no stones for any other 
purposes than those described. 

It has puzzled me much to discover, in what way, fetud 
Mands should be, as the meaning implies. ' great ' Mands, and 
why their dairies should be held in more reverence, and be 
guarded with more care than those of ordinary villages. In a 
general way, they appear to be somewhat larger than usual. 
One can see that their droves of cattle arc of more than common 
size. And so the impression left after a visit, is that there is 
something of the cathedral about the spot. These are, however, 
signs that such dairies arc great, but do not afford the reason 
why they are so. And there was no one to explain. The 
people themselves had probably never thought of a reason ; 
they had been satisfied with the knowledge which had grown 
with their gro\rth, that it was an etud Mand. I will now give 
the result of my own enquiries and speculations. 

A certain number of dairies are said by the Todas to contain 

a kurpu* or relic of an ancestor ; a ring for instance, a hatchet 

' Kurpu. Dr&vidian. Tamil has \nui = in^iea/e, point out. Kurippu 



I 



THE ETUD MAND. I 57 

' or other imperishable article, even as is said, a bell — konku. CHAFi^J 
That many of these etud Mands contain kurpus, I have 
ascertained by direct enquiry. That they all do so, or are 
supposed by the people to do so, is my bplief. Hence we see 
the etud Mands are shrines; the shrines of a race which bums 
its dead. 

Now the Badaga name for such a village is mui Mand.^ 
And as the very intimate knowledge which this cognate tribe 
possesses of Toda practice, would probably cause the word 
mui to be descriptive; it would materially assist us in our 
enquiries if we knew exactly what it does mean. 

It has been ascertained that the Todas often settle" disputes 
amongst themselves at these places — the tiri^ri being too sacred 
to be approached for such purposes — challenging one another 
to make good their word, by repeating it at the Gtud Mand. 
By joining alt these notes together, I can frame an explana- 
tion that appears to me quite reasonable, and in consonance 
with my knowledge of the people's habits and mode of thought. 
They evidently consider the dairies containing kurpus, or relics 
of their ancestors, in the light of shrines ; and in consequence, 
the precincts and presence to be holy ground ; so holy that 
men would be restrained from lightly uttering a falsehood at 
such spots." Hence it is, that these ' great' Mands are used for 

— verbal noun "d s^i, indication, tnemorial. The Kanarcse uses guri. 
[Pope.] 

Maiji. Sanskrit map i =/«£/«/, bili. Used in all the Dravidian lan- 
guages. [Pope.] 

Mr. Met! draws a distinction between kurpu and mani ; the latter is 
spccilic and implies a metal ring or beil. Thus although a niai^i is with 
this people always a kurpu, every Icurpu is not a mani. It may be an 
axe or slaj. 

To me it seems that the word raaiji is a refinement introduced through 
contact with the Hindus j giving a mure distinctly religious, sacred or 
holy meaning to the sentiment implied in the kurpu. 

' Mui. In old Kanarese Muyyi is retaliation. 

MO in Tamil is old, venerable. [Pope.] 

• Mr. Metz tells me that an oath is taken, hy removing the mantle, and 
stepping over it, in the presence of the etud Mand- 



158 



THE firup MAND. 



I CHAP, the purpose' of 

.— ^ 1^. large circle of families. 



:idering matters of weight concerning »' 
This belief is greatly strengthened 
by the knowledge that throughout the East the practice is 
common, to hold similar meetings at shnnes of holy mefi ; 
Pirs, Jogis, Fakirs, &c. 

That an fitud Mand should have larger herds of cattle 
than ordinary, may be accounted for by the practice of the 
people to give cattle in fulfilment of a vow ; that if so and so 
occurs — a son is born for instance — the gift of a cow or calf 
will be made to the dairy. 

It is important that we arrive at some decision on the 
object and use of a dairy which occupies a position so 
manifestly conspicuous amongst their social institutions ; to 
enable us to clear our minds as to all the components of the 
Toda faith. So long as we do not know what an fitud Mand 
is, we should always feel that some material portion of their 
religious system remained unexplained. 



THE FUTURE STATE, 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THE FUTURE STATE. 



^TixAu have no just sense of a Ruling Alndghty Power— Belief in 
Elentity-^Tke Natural Causes of the belief in a Future Stale^Future 
Punishment. • 



The Todas appear not to have formed even an approximately CHAP. 
just conception of an All-mighty, All-wise, All-good Being. - 
Though perhaps of these attributes of a Ruling Power, they 
appreciate the evidences of might, with most absolute cer- 
tainty, for the probable reason that they cannot avoid observing 
the existence somewhere of a Power which influences their 
destinies ; that has sent them buffalos to supply food, gives 
them children, and that kills and cures. They see also the 
mysterious sun and moon in daily movement over the earth, 
shedding their benign rays over all, as they traverse the sky. 
These evidences of useful and mighty living Power about and 
above them, are manifest, equally to their mental as to their 
ocular vision. 

So far as they may be said to have a religion at all, it 
seems to be a growth from some confused contemplation of 
all these and other visible conditions. There is very little of 
the abstract or the unseen involved in their beliefs. 

Nature has never presented to the Todas, her awful side, in 
visions of ice, frost, or savage storms. They are the dolicho- 
cephalic children of sunny regions,' to whom nature is more 

' See Chapter IX., on the dispositions, and the natural home of the 
dolichocephali. 



i6o 



THE FUTURE STATE. 



often beneficent than the contrary. Hence their beliefs are 
- pleasant rather than otherwise, and death is free from horrors. 

Even when a man's breath has left his body, and the corpse 
yet remains with them — forming the most eventful episode in 
their experience— yet no power of generalising or abstract 
reasoning seems to come to their aid, to assist them in this 
their day of agony, to frame any sort of link between the ex- 
pired spirit, and the Spirit which rules the darkness, in whose 
bosom it fias been lost to sight. Their practical experience 
forms the fuel, which their strong sense of perpetuity, fanned 
by the visible evidences of power in all nature, kindles into 
flame ; dictating that the curious something which has just 
left that body — lying so senseless without it — must have gone 
somewhere. And where could it have gone, but to another 
place just like this? Other Todas are there: and they could 
not live without milk ; therefore buffalos are there too ! 

' A high degree of education must be attained, ' writes Mr. 
Baring-Gould, ' before the notion of annihilation can be 
apprehended.' Again : ' Let anyone try to imagine himself 
extinguished — his powers of thought, his feelings, his volitions, 
his perceptions broken short off — and he will see how ex- 
tremely difficult is the task, and how incomplete his success.' * 

I incline greatly to the belief that the firm faith in a 
future state, owes its origin more to the domestic feelings, 
strengthened by the strong conservative sense provided by 
the OT^an of Concentrativeness, than to Hope, which 
is ordinarily considered to be its stronghold. The first 
combination is that which eminently distinguishes the most 
primitive races, whilst Hope is a religious oi^an whose 
development betokens an advance from the primaeval state. 
A very pretty illustration of my theory is contained in the 
following quotation from ' Guy Mannering,' taken from Mr. 
Baring-Gould's work ; ' Whiles I think my puir bairn's dead,' 



' Baring-Could 'The Origin of Rdijious Bclitf.' 



THE FUTURE STATE. 



l6l 



l.said Madge Wildfire, 'ye ken* very weel it's buried — but that 
signifies naettiing, I have had it on my knee a hundred times 
md a hundred times till that, since it was buried ; and how 
could that be were it dead, ye ken ? it's merely impossible' 

It is somewhat remarkable that the Todas should not only 
feel so confident in their immortality, but be without apprehen- 
_ sion as to the future state ; in the possibility that individually 
|- they may not attain to it. No such doubts arise to perplex 
their simple minds. Death is not a leap in the dark, but the 
contrary, The mode of thought — if thinking, it may be termed 
— by which they seem to set at rest this difficulty of more 
advanced and religious races, is too curious to be lost. 

Their belief appears to be based on two considerations ; 
one, what they know : the other, a sort of self-consciousness. 
As regards the first, they know that they and their cattle 
were raised from the earth by the Great Unseen. This with 
them is a faith assured, as if the true story had been handed 
down from incontrovertible sources. They find themselves 
living, existing, breathing: they note the breath-life to leave 
the clay whidi returns to earth. But where does this breath- 
life go .' The reply is contained in their knowledge. 'Tis 
a little sophistical perhaps, but an illogical jump is nothing 
with such people. They know that Todas and cattle live in 
amnOr ; hence they are certain, with an absolute certainty, 
that this departed breath has gone there to Join their fore- 
fathers. In this there is nothing more wonderful than tliat 
they rose from the soil I The subject is not wortli thinking 
about I it has long been known ! Thinking is difficult to tlie 
primitive mind. Hest not to think ! 

If with all our accumulated stores of information, we find 
the subject of a future state but little further advanced than 
it was ages ago, we can sympathise with a very simple people 
who have so few facts to work upon, and with whom the 

' 1 would invite a comparison between this word ken, and the Toda 
words for I see, I dream, 1 smell, et cetera, in Chapter XXIX. 



l63 



THE FUTURE STATE. 



CHAT, process of thought is little more than the instinctive stringing" 
-^ — , — '- and restringing of those very few and very stale facts together. 
With a deeply domestic, excessively conservative and practical 
race, void of talent for generalisation, employed in working 
out its own problem ; what could its theory of a future state 
be, than an exact copy of circumstances it had witnessed in 
this ? 

The self-consciousness to which 1 have ascribed one of the 
reasons for their viewing the future entirely without apprehen- 
sion, appears to me to be an intuitive but unobirmiv£ appreciation 
of llie simplicity and harnilessness of their mvn natures: unsensi- 
tive doubtless as to abstract right and wrong, but whose ten- 
dencies to the commission of crime are the very smallest ; 
small indeed, in proportion to the inefficiency of their charac- 
ter, rather than in any ratio to moral qualities. 

It is acknowledged that they commit without much remorse, 
as a matter almost of habit and nearly with impunity, acts which, 
with races that have long been exposed to the influence of a 
public opinion, are scouted as degraded though secret vices, 
but which the unrefined Toda sense does not censure as any- 
thing very heinous ; rather as peccadillos punishable in a quiet 
way amongst themselves. 

If all Toda society is unanimous in holding such acts as of 
small importance, where from such a race are we to meet a 
Toda of the unusual moral stature to consider himself alone 
■ criminal .' Todas in addition to much real harmle.ssness of life 
are never troubled by moral scruples or remorseful feelings; 
such as would give their consciences trouble, leading to the 
hope of a purer future life, or one in which those who had 
escaped nierited punishment for crimes committed in this 
world, would yet sulTer hereafter. 

If they have words for sin and hell, they have to all appear- 
ance, merely been adopted from the Hindus ; the former perhaps 
in its milder sense, of a trespass, to supply a want, the latter 
to apply to other people. But Todas all go to amndr. 



THE BOATH. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



THE BOATH. 



ErUmal appearance of the Boalk—Nigkt vtsit^Inside of the Beath— 
Where are the Relics T—The Booth an exceptional curiosity—Specula- 
Hints regarding it; a Bethel f connected with the Bothan t 

On a previous visit to the village dose to which this temple — 
one out of only three or four in the whole tribe — is situated,' 
I had been able to reconnoitre it at my leisure whilst talking 
to the naked vorshal seated on the surrounding-wall. 

He told us with Toda solemnity and such an air. that there 
were very sacred relics in it, handed down from past genera- 
tions. Here a turn in the wrist of his upraised arm implied the 
pre-historic antiquity I was hunting for! How did he guess 
my secret ? But he was lamentably hazy when I strove to 
turn his observations to practical account. Nor could I get 
from him a clear description, even of his daily occupations. 
To sit naked on the wall and look like a scarecrow was the 
feat he seemed to accomplish best. 

' I want to go in,' I said, advancing towards the temple. 

' No,' he replied, backing towards the door of the sacred 
edifice, and shaking the palms of both hands and outspread 
fingers in alarmed delirium. 

' What will happen if I go in ? ' ■ 

' The Gods will tear you to pieces.' 

He would not agree to the proposal, though backed by a 
little offering, so after taking a sketch I retired. 



L 



■ At the top of the SigSr Ghat. 



164 



THE BOATH. 



CHAP. 
XIX. 



The appearance of the building is as follows ; a conical 
thatched roof on a circular wall of very stout planking. The 
wall about four cubits high. The whole edifice some fourteen 
or fifteen cubits tall and six cubits in diameter. At a distance 
of approximately six cubits, the temple is surrounded by a 
massive wall of uncut stone, put together without cement, two 
cubits broad and three in height. 

I have represented in the sketch the wall as partially 

No. 20. 




CONICAL TEMPLB— BOATH. 



thrown down, with a view to displaying the entire building, 
but in reality the circuit of the wall is complete. 

The apex of the cone is crowned with a large stone, placed 
there apparently with the object — however inadequate the 
conception — of steadying the roof, or perhaps excluding rain 
• from that weak point. 

Some days subsequent to this visit, selecting a dark night 
for the purpose, and accompanied by a friend — who, I had 
better at once state, was not the reverend companion who has 




CONICAL TEMPLE, 
B A T H , 



I 



THE BOATH. 1 65 

been my steady associate in all innocent if somewhat inquisi- 
torial visits — 1 walked over the hills to this village on burgia- ■ 
rious intent. What should I do, I thought as I went along, 
if I really met a valuable relic, say some 2,000 years 
old, with an inscription on it? Who is it is said to have 
said that every man has his price? I had mine. Were 1 
only to find a signet ring, I was ripe to commit theft in 
.addition to the minor crime of breaking into a savage man's 
temple. 

In this frame of mind we arrived at the spot. How nobly 
the little billy-cock house stood out in relief against the 
murky sky ! The buffalos in the pen close by, were breathing 
hard and snorting as they caught our smell. Fastidious in 
them, considering that we were certainly clean, as compared 
* with their slumbering masters and mistresses. Indeed it must 
have been the unusual scent that disturbed them. 

All the world asleep and hushed but we two and a few 
fastidious cattle. Though all is quiet and our isolation absolute, 
we hold a preliminary survey of the premises — the vorshai 
might be within^ — nor till we had satisfied ourselves that the 
only noise was of our own making, did we proceed to business. 

Unpicking the stones with which, for want of lock and key, 
the doorway was closed, I sat prepared to enter. ' Where is 
the door?* asked my friend, inexperienced in Toda architecture. 
So he remained watching. ' Are you going into that .* ' I next 
heard from behind the tails of my coat. He must have received 
the response as if from a diving-bell. 

The door of the temple, which by the way, faces almost due 
south, appears, judging by the eye, to approach in its dimen- 
sions, a cubit in height by half a cubit in breadth. Even 
taken angle-wise this aperture was found to constitute a close 
fit for full-grown men. 

In we crawled, and when fairly inside, rc-locked the door 
by blocking it up behind us: and struck a light. I do not sup- 
pose we either of us exactly knew what we had expected to 



THE BOATH. 



find ; but a slight groan 
s of rats in 



:.fol 



disappointment, ( 

empty bucket, told the melancholy 



movements, a 
tale— nothing. 

The pitch darkness of the inside, and blackness of the roof 
and walls, absorbing nearly all the Hght of our candles, it was 
with difficulty we satisfied ourselves of the value and form of 
our possession. 

The temple is divided by a thick wooden partition wall — , 
which extends from the earthen floor in which it is buried, to 
the full height of the roof — into two compartments of equal 
size. There is a small doorway in this wail of the same 
dimensions as the first, Midway between the two doorways, 
at the level of the floor, is a vat or basin of about a half cubit 
square, made of stone. 

We look through the interstices between the clumsy slabs of ' 
the dividing- wall, into the next room. That at any rate is not 
empty. It is the sawtuiH sanctorum, where the relics are kept. 

Once more! In through the little door of the dividing 
wall. Quite easy now 1 First squat square opposite to it, like 
a frog. Next supple tlie whole body. Then go in cornerwise 
with elan ! Don't attempt to rise till you are five feet ofl^ on 
the other side. This feat can be practised through a window- 
frame at ground level. 

just looking round at the little door, more in sorrow tlian 
in anger, we proceed to business. Earthenware pots, honnus, 
and a whirl with which to chum butter by revolving between 
the palms of the hands. No bell, no hatchet, neither ring nor 
relic of any kind, no niche for light.s, no altar, no stone, no 
phallus or Ungum. No snakes! Everyone has been telling 
us lies, and the world is full of sawdust ! 

Back through the two doors quickly, like prairie dogs. Out 
into the open air. The transition was as if we had been bom 
again. 

Now to philosophise. This is a very simple religious faith I 1 
How many negatives go 'to prove a positive! One thing is | 



THE BOATH. 



I 



dear, every priest must be long in the back and very fond of CHAP. 

milk! But why were the doors so unusually small, and why ■ A— 

locked, and why these fusty lies about relics ? 

Some time subsequent to the events just described, an ex- ^H 

cellent opportunity occurred of making further enquiry re- ^H 

garding relics — the belief in which had now become much ^H 

shaken — and particularly as regards those which this builtliiig ^M 

^ had been said to contain, and whose non-discovery haunted ^| 

me still. ^H 

' The people of the village say there are relics — mani — ^H 

in that temple— dfirmane,' or gudi ' ' — 1 remarked as casually ^H 

as I could to our old friend, the ex-pk\al, ' do they bury them ^H 

in the ground ? ' ^M 

Aha,' with a Toda grunt and shake of the head. ^M 

' Then where are they i ' ^| 

Now this Toda had told us many things, and all he had ^M 

said had proved to be true. Moreover neither he nor any ^| 

one else had the slightest conception that a visit had been ^| 

paid to the inside of the dermanc, or that we entertained ^H 

any particular interest in it He must merely have thought ^H 

to himself from the question, this is another of Paul Pry's ^H 

' I only wanted to know,' ^H 

He glanced up sideways at me, and ^H 

By his countenance ^^M 

Enjoin'd mc silence. ^^M 

With his hand to the side of his mouth, he said in a low ^M 

voice ' Under the stone on the top of the roof ^M 

Sold ! < H 

I look on this d^rmane as an exceptional curiosity, possess- ^H 

ing for our purposes an interest peculiarly its own. In the ^| 
first place, it is unique in contour, though catislruchil as to plan ' ^H 

' D?nnane= Gods-kouse^rcsiiienu of the Gods. ^H 

' Gudi— VI lenipUi a word probably borrowed from the Gadagas. ^^| 

In Sanskrit, kudi is a house and a curve. In Tclugu, it is used for a ^^| 

eircU SloAh Umple. In Kanareseitisaf^in^/^iaDdis writtengudi. [Pope.] ^H 



1 68 



THE BOATH. 



■CHAF. under tlu same general ideas, and apparently for similar pur- 1 
* ' poses as the dairy of a tiri^ri or the p^lthchi of any 1 
Mand. Then it holds a vat — which no other building does — ' 
whose use is not understood by the vorshal in charge, and 
whose very existence is, I feel nearly certain, unknown to the 
people. If the vat was constructed for sacrificial purposes, 
then its use has been discontinued and forgotten, tliough the 
priest in charge is a vorshal or sacrifice man.* 

It is situated on an exposed site bearing the outlines of 
stone walls, built on a largeness of scale, and in a form, 
nowhere else found amongst tliesc people — with a Kromlech 
and numerous Kairns dotted close about. 

The specific name by which it is known — boath'- 
peculiar, and applicable solely to that style of structure. 

Now it should be borne in mind, if we would form 
opinion on the origin of this edifice, that the Todas ; 
unimaginative creatures of one idea; having one way of doin^l 
everything : intolerant of change or deviation from custonira 
unless for some manifestly practical advantage. How thea-J 
do we find such a race in occupation of an eccentric buildinj 
which does not fit in with any of its other institutions.' Notl 
a tiriSri — for it is of lower grade in Toda estimation ; itsJ 
servant a vorshil, not a God. Not an ordinary pSlthchi, fori 
one of the largest size exists apart, within a few paces of it. 

As there is nobody who can give an explanation of thej 
phenomenon, I will submit a theory of my own for considerjt-1 
tion. May the boath not be the bethel of some tribe con^^T 
temporancous with, and cognate to, the Todas, which, takin] 
refuge like them on these hills, died out in their presence— •■ 



* See Note 4 of Chapter VIII. 

' lioath. An enclosed Jain temple is basti. 

It may be deemed fanciful to refer to booth or bothy, 
bwih, the Gaelic Is both. This word is of vcrj' 
Tamil vtd and Kanarese bId = Acaj(r, may be compared. 

The Todas and Dr.lvidians generally, have mucli in 
Celtic uibcs. fPoPE.] 



The Welsh i 
,e. Thcl 



THE BOATH. 



169 



i 
i 



the Todas thus becoming inheritors of a curious and sacred CHAP,.j 
building, possessing some relics, and possibly a herd of cattle ^ ' - 
attached ? 

The point of interest in this theory consists greatly in the 
possibility of the original owners of this boath being the 
builders of the circles, Kairns or Kromlechs,* or the erectcrs of 
the upright stones — Genesis xxviiL 18, 19 — which are all 
found in great abundance on these hills. 

Is this form of temple or surrounding wall found elsewhere 
— in other parts of the world — in connection with these 
erections and with massive ruins ? Let us read an extract 
from the ' Explorations in the Peninsula of Sinai,' written by the 
Rev. F. W. Holland, and which will be found in ' The Recovery 
of Jerusalem.' ' During my wanderings in 1867,' he says, ' I 
found that there were other ruins of a much older date : 
houses similar in form to the Bothan, or beehive houses in 
Scotland, built of rough and massive stones, about five feet 
high, and forty to fifty feet in circumference, with no windows, 
and one small door about twenty inches high. . . . These 
houses are generally found in groups, and near them are often 
seen the ruins of tombs — circles of massive stones — similar to 
those which in England and Scotland are called Druids' 
circles." ^ 



r I. 



'The Recovery of Jerusalem. 



THE GREEN FUNERAL 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE GREEN FUNERAL. 

71? Iwo Funerals dcscrihed—LasI office to a dying Toda — Tke corpse 
journeys to the Kidu Mand — Tke Kldu M and desci-ibed— Obsequies — 
' Dust /o dust' — Slaughter of Cattle — The ashes of the dead^Kotas 
remove the Carcasses of Cattle. 

CIIAP. The ceremonies observed on the death of a Toda may be 
— ' . ■ — divided into two groups ; the first of which, appertaining to 
the funeral proper, and termed the green funeral or hase ' 
kfidu,* is performed witliin a day or two after death. The 
second, styled the dry funeral or bara* kedu, which will be 
described in full in the next Chapter, and is more of a com- 
memorative nature, was formerly celebrated in the course of 
two or three months after the first. It was, as I understand, 
delayed mainly by local circumstances affecting tlie general 
interests of the community. Of late years, however, certain 
restrictions which the Government of Madras placed on the 
slaughter of cattle at the ceremonies, have caused the people 
to postpone these final obsequies until the death of several 
Todas should enable them, by combining sundry funerals, 
to make one great show. Hence the bara kfidu is often not 
effected until the lapse of a twelvemonth after death. 

' Hase or pach or pache. Root in Drflvidian is pa^ = /i'«./f^, soft^ i 
raw, green. Perhaps allied to Sansk. \3s:fi.Kt^'^ spring. Gaelic iasmA 
spring. [POFE.] 

' Kfidu. Tamil. V.a.TaxQ.^K~d-:stritction, death. 

Telugu. Chedii ^perish. 

Compare Sanskrit kshi (nu) "perish. [PoPE.] 

* B^tra. Tamil var. Kanarese and Telugu hax^diy, parched, i 
famine. Compare Eng. bare, [I'OPE.] 



THE GREEN FUNERAL. 



In my desire to witness a Toda's deathbed, as well as all the 
ceremonies consequent thereon, I had promised a handsome - 
present to anyone who would bring me timely information, 
whether by night or by day, of an approaching event ; when 
1 noticed a lad move off quietly with bright hope on his 
countenance, and shortly afterwards I overtook him striding 
over hill and dale, straight as a bird to his quarry. The 
reply to my enquiry where he was going was translated by 
the Tamil interpreter, ' Going to sec somebody too mtuk sick.' 
He was in fact on his road to some invalid Toda, whose case 
he thought bad. 

When a man is so ill as to lead to the expectation of his 
early demise, he is dressed up in the ornaments and jewellery 
of his house, in order that he may make a respectable corpse. 
These he will wear until he either dies or recovers. Indeed a 
man who had revived from what was thought his death-bed 
has been observed parading about very proud and distinguished 
looking ; wearing the finery with which he had been bedecked 
for his own funeral, and which he would be permitted to carry 
till he really departed this life. 

When on the point of death, the last office his kin perform 
for their relative, is to give him milk, if only a drop or two, to 
drink. No prayer is said, nor arc the Gods invoked in any way. 

It is well here to observe, as reflecting on other social pre- 
judices, that there is no religious necessity for a son to perform 
any one of the ceremonies attending on a Toda's death and 
funeral. The laws of Manou style the eldest son ' him who is 
begotten to perform the duty,' and in consequence of this 
absolute necessity for a son, we find amongst the Arj'as a high 
importance set upon male progeny. The Todas, however, 
whilst equally craving for sons, yet do not require them for 
any such religious object. The pride in male children appears 
to be based upon less definable causes, so much .so as to s 
almost inherent in man. 

The decorated corpse is now wrapped in a new mantle, into 



172 




THE GREEN FUNERAL. 



I CHAP, the pockets of which, food, such as roast grain, sugar, ei c 
* — r^— and small pieces of wood are put. He is now ready for his 
journey to amn6r : he has food for the road. 

It is a fact of interest and worth noting in connection with 
this narrative, that the Badagas — who have been already 
described as beheved to be cognate to the Todas' — preserve 
the custom common to the Greeks, of placing an oboliis in the 
mouth of the dying man. So important do the Badagas con- 
sider the due performance of this last rite to the living, that 
they will keep a supply of this metal disc about the person in 
order that one may always be at hand for use on occasion. 
But to continue: — 

The body is brought out from the little house and laid with 
care on the rough bier, formed with branches from the village 
grove. 

The nearest k^du Mand is out on a spur of that hill we see 
on the horizon, full six miles off. So there is no time to be 
lost. Good bye, dear old crone — his grandmother, and the 
young aunt with the new-bom babe, and that sad little 
assembly of children, all brothers, sisters, uncles, nieces, of 
the dead man ; some too old, others too young, all too weak, 
to trudge to the horizon over hill and dale. 

Now his house is shut up : the little door is closed, Twigs 
and leaves lying scattered on the ground : a neglected grind- 
stone leaning against the wall : a piece of forgotten matting : 
the cat rubbing its ill-fed body on the door panel : the per- 
tinacious flies about the house — all conspire to tell the tale of 
the savage's deserted dwelling, and the drama just enacted. 

The corpse is rested for a few moments on the low surround- 
ing wall, whilst its tail bearers step into the village pathway. 
The little family group which is to remain, crouches weeping 
close by. The others are busy with their adjustments prepa- 
ratory to the long walk. The whole picture is before us ; 
primitive, simple, or savage, yet these people have a thorough 
human appreciation of the moment. 



THE GREEN FUNERAL. 1 73 

Raise the stretcher into the path : carry in your hands 
through the soft bit, pitted with buffalo hoof marks : past the . 
slushy pound : across the Httle trickUng burn with its fern- 
brake and flower- studded margin, made by Nature so uncon- 
strained and graceful, as though she hoped, even against all 
hope, with untiring persistency, that the day might come 
when some might turn to admire her, and from contemplating 
the power that made thase silent but appealing beauties, glean 
a moral lesson. 

Up with the burden on your shoulders. The primitive 
cortege has left the Mand ; the man's ancestral home, its 
greenwood and the rippling stream, behind. It has passed the 
ragged cattle pen, and the group of calves nibbling herbage 
in the moist lea. The weli-wom village path has opened out 
and divided into numerous narrow cattle tracks, up some of 
which our small party of mourners winds from the secluded 
village site, to the open high ground ahead. 

Strange and rarely primitive is this be-mantled, bareheaded 
company of men and women, boys and girls. The corpse 
'wobbles' on the unequal shoulders of its four bearers, 
striding along so direct : pursued closely by the train of quick- 
stepping women, suckling infants under their mantles as they 
go: and by a prolonged concourse of lightly laden men, 
carrying fuel for the pyre or tittle bundles and vessels con- 
taining food ! flanked by sanguine youths, who, unburdened 
and without a care, straggle alongside, regardless of all paths. 
The pace has grown too fast for sobs. 

The fresh wind, through the brilliant sunshine, now blows 
over the wold, without moving the crisp primeval grass which 
crackles as they pass, but tossing about the women's curls 
with wanton freedom, and leading to a general rearrangement 
of togas. 

Airily along the gentle slope of the spur extending its un- 
broken length gradually down to the boggy tarn ahead. We 
pass the half-wild herd belonging to a neighbouring Mand, 



174 THE GREEN FUNERAL. 

grazing under supervision of the lank boys who now approacn 
- to view the procession. A timid cow, scenting something un- 
wonted, looks up alarmed, wheels round suddenly and bolts: 
wheels again, stops, and stares from a distance. A dozen 
others imitate her conduct exactly. Then the whole herd 
advances step by step, in circling line. A word or two from 
the boys, and all resume grazing except one inquisitive 
daughter of her mother, who singly follows the procession 
with nose uplifted, smelling, till she finds herself isolated from 
her comrades — then stops and gazes. Onwards proceeds the 
cortege. 

Across the bog by the well-known track. Up again to the 
high land. Along the winding crests of the smooth continuous 
hills. Past another Mand nestling in a sleepy hollow ; its 
cattle-pen looking in the bird's-eye view more important than 
the little human habitations. 

Obviously we near the k6du Mand, for, converging towards 
one focus, twos and threes of invited friends are seen tracing 
their different courses from out secluded valleys ; now seem- 
ingly close at hand as they crest tile rising ground, now lost 
to view — till suddenly we come on them all, quietly waiting 
to salute the corpse as it arrives on the ground. 

Here, too, a compact little body of cows, still bcloiigivg to 
the deceastd, which, snorting and scrubbing against one another, 
hot and fly-worried, with every tail in motion, come pushing 
along from the dead man's village, whence they have been 
driven through pasture and through bog land, to perform 
their part in the approaching obsequies. 

The kedu Mand consists of a stone cattle-pen, and a hut of 
the ordinary village dairy type, which when erected for a man's 
rites is styled kfd nSr pdlthchi or funeral district dairy, but 
when for a woman is termed kM nSr 3rsh, or funeral district 
house.* Also the customary rivulet of water, the Httle wood 

* Mr. MeU is my authority. The nicety of the distinction is not 
understood. 



THE GREEN FUNERAL 



175 



—somewhat shabby I notice, as if, when fuel ran short, 
supply was often cut from it — and an open spot termed the , 
atharfi." 

Arrived at the Mand after their hot and depressing trudge, 
the party deposit their various burdens ; the food supply in 
the hut, and the bier on the ground, either inside or outside 
tJie little house, according to the state of the weather. Amidst 
the exchange of salutations going on aU around between the 
different new arrivals, some engage themselves in building the 
pyre on the dthSrfi ; and some of the women prepare meals 
inside the hut, for the large concourse of visitors, many of 
whom have been hurriedly summoned from long distances 
over the hills, and will be hungry. Others of the relatives 
most nearly interested, remain a lamenting group around the 
body. 

When the funeral pile has been constructed and the last of 
the expected guests has arrived, a little bell — getti, not 
konku" — is hung round the necks of each of the cattle, 
accompanied by the words ' avan od atvo, go with him.' 
They are then driven in a group near to the corpse. A 
little hole is dug through the tyrf conveniently close by ; from 
which the mourners, male and female, approaching one by 
one, take thrice, a handful of soil and throw it towards the 
buffalos : then three times more on to the prostrate body, 
saying 'purzh uigama, purzh ulgama, purzh ulgama,'' meaning 
'Let him go into the soil.' Each baby of the family had the 
fingers of its small hand unfurled and guided to perform this 



Perhaps from the Sanskrit ad'hSra, 
■e where the final rites are performed. 



' Alhfire, Atharb. Alharm. 
which is used as -fundamental. 

The meaning would be, the filac 
[Pope.] 

' In Chapter XVI. it was explained that gelti is Ihe ordinary existing 
cattle-bell of the district. I never saw a konku except as a lirifiri relic. 

' Purzh ulgama. In Tamil puYUthi is dust, sail, fine earth. This p is 
.1 strong lingual, and sounds like r1z. 

Ul is a DrSvidian root for /«, within. In Kanarese, olagc-JwyA/n. The 
termination A forms the optative. [Pope.] 



176 THE GREEN FUNERAL. 

last rite ; smiling the wliile, in infant wonder and approval at 
- this new game. 

The meaning of the words as, voluntarily and entirely 
without suggestion, explained by a Toda, is 'as we were born 
of the earth, we return to it.' The recumbent corpse is now 
raised a little in the arms of his relatives, as if to give it an 
air of authority. Then the cows, each with two men clinging 
round her horns and neck, having been dragged in succession 
up to their master, his dead arm is raised, and the hand made 
to touch the horns. 

A sacred fire is now made by igniting sticks by friction.^ 
The pyre is lighted. Now the coqjse still in the arms of these 
punctilious relatives is raised over the pyre, swung lengthwise 
three times from side to side, then deposited — in its mantle and 
ornaments — on the wood, with Us face downwards : the people 
crying, ' We shall kill buffalos for you.' ' You are going to 
amnfir.' ' May you have milk to drink.' ' May it be well with 
you.' ' May all thy sins go," and so on. A lock of hair is cut 
off at this time. 

I was careful to ascertain that the placing the body with its 
face downwards had not been an accidental circumstance. 
The people could give no reason for the act beyond their 
usual answer, ' It is our custom.' Nor had satirical objections 
to the practice of turning their friends' bodies upside down at 
the moment of starting for amnflr, the etfect of drawing from 
them any excuse for, or vindication of, the apparently 
senseless act. 

One or two cow buffalos are now despatched. The ' happy re- 
lease ■ is performed by a single blow made on the poll of the 
creature's crouched head with the butt end of an axe, whilst it 
is held by a couple of strong men interlacirig their arms over 
its neck and horns. As each animal falls, men, women, and 
children group themselves round its head, and fondle, caress, 



• Probably by the VorshAL See Chapter \'in. 



THE GREEN FUNERAL. 



177 



land kiss its face : then s 



1 sitting in groups of pairs — both sexes 
indiscriminately — with the tops of their foreheads joined, give ■ 
way to wailing and lamentation. A most singular and inter- 
esting spectacle, rendered more piquant and real, by the aspect 
of a small boy who, not finding his pair, was running about 
from one crying group to another, blubbering till his face was 
distorted and swollen, looking amongst the mantles for a spare 
head to rest his own against. 

Thus they remain till the body has been consumed : when 

Kthe lock of hair that had been cut off, together with portions 

rof the half-burnt skull— nirrzh" — are collected in a piece of 

' cloth, to be deposited in a corner of his house,'" henceforth 

kept shut up, till the bara kfidu. 

The silver and gold of the burnt jewellery are sought for 
from the ashes, but little valueless odds and ends — as knives, 
iron rings and other ornaments, the rings off the ends of 
wooden pestles — together with the ashes of the dead, are 
buried in the ground. The hole which contains these remains 
is then filled up with earth, on which water is poured. Over ail 
a stone. The earthen vessel which held the water is broken. 

Having saluted the spot where the ashes have been buried, 
by touching it with their foreheads, they leave the place, 
avoiding it henceforward, but merely on account of the 
painful associations connected with it. A person once dead 
is never nmtud, though he may be made the subject of 
conversation. 

It is a mistake to suppose these people have a feast — a 
jollification — after this funeral. Indeed they are as little dis. 
posed for anything of the sort as we should be in the same 
position. But a number of friends from a distance have to be 
fed, and as all are not real mourners, and have many of them 
brought excellent appetites, they eat. 

' Nirrzb. tA'MtM.*' sacred atltei, ashes. This is at the root of it. 
[Pope.] 
'■> Some such custom would be the origin of the Manes and Penates. 



XX. 



178 THE GREEN FUNERAL. 

CHAP. The funeral ceremonies of women and children are, I was 
informed, the same as for men ; fewer cattle are killed, and 
perhaps not so large an assembly of folk are present, but in 
other respects they are identical 

The carcases of the slaughtered cattle are left lying on the 
ground. So soon as the place is clear, they will be carried off 
by the Kotas, who have already assembled for the sake of 
this meat 

Toda men sometimes shave their heads and beards as a sign 
of mourning, though not often. Not so those of the Peiki 
clan, because ' they perform sacred offices.* Women never cut 
their hair off. 

The cremation of the body is performed with the wood of 
certain (seven) varieties of trees, whose names I do not know. 
On showing samples of them, which had been collected for 
me by a young man, to a p4141, he swept them aside with his 
hand, implying that, compared with the tOde, which he 
treated with great respect, they were as nothing. 



THE DRY FUNERAL 



CHAPTER XXI. 



THE DRY FUNERAL. 



I The burmHg of a Flute, Bow, and Arrows — The Danct — Scent with the 
Sacrificial Cattlt—Again' dust to dust' —Catching the Cattle—The 
Sacrifice — The Catile-bell^No Priest concerned in the Ceremonies — 
sprinkling of blood — Final burning of the Manes — The Kotos remove 
the dead Cattle. 

If the first obsequies may be held to express feeling and 
mournful sentiments for the deceased as true and sound - 
as any we exhibit in like circumstances ; the ceremonies of 
the bara kedu or dry funeral may with equal justice be 
looked on as partaking both of a propitiatory provisional 
nature and of a commemorative festival character — as if per- 
formed with the object of speeding the general welfare of the 
friend gone to the unknown country : but in a style of show 
and hospitality somewhat commensurate with his worldly 
importance. 

Hence we find the Todas congregate in considerable 
numbers at the kedu Mand, and display their ornaments on 
tliese occasions : feeding also a large assembly of their own 
and neighbouring tribes, conspicuous amongst which, the 
Kotas, who attend with much discordant piping or flageolet 
music (they are the musicians — save the mark!^ — of these 
hills). A very well-behaved multitude, but whose presence 
may be noted as readily by the nose as by other organs.' 

In the very early morning of the first of a two days' 

' One now quite understands the value of the Toda expression, 'I see 
irith my nose.' 



l8o THE DRY FUNERAL. 

ceremonial, and long before these guests have begun tO^ 
' the family of the deceased have a little private ordinance o 
their own ; in burning all his personal property, such as his stick i 
or staff, the honnu or milk vessel, and clothes : also a __ 
or flageolet, and a model of d bow with bamboo ' stringsl 
arrows. * I could not ascertain any reason whatever for this] 
musical instrument and these spurious weapons being burntS 
Be it particularly borne in mind that the Todas have r 
of music and do not possess a flute in the whole tribe : thatl 
they never hunt, and have no weapons of the chase. These9 
toys are made by the Kotas entirely for the occasion. ThusJ 
it was, I experienced some difiiculty in buying the bow, which! 
will be found in photograph No. 15. The firet question askcdl 
of the man who purchased it for me from the Kota, was ' WhoJ 
is dead ? ' 

The opening public ceremony of the day, is a kind of dance I 
performed by from twenty to fifty men. The dance I witnessed I 
was monotonous enough. It consisted of the body of mea,4 
keeping step whilst striding round and round like the spokes offl 
a wheel ; each spoke having three men arm in arm : and aUfl 
exclaiming, rather than shouting, 'AIU! A!U!'*in tim 
with their steps, I could trace nothing symbolic in the ex-f 
hibition except that strange number three, which I notice inl 
all religious matters, to be constantly appearing. It may be^ 
that the dance and shout are both merely a Toda mode of] 
giving vent and expression to a festive state of mind. 

Whilst this dance is being carried on by the men, thCfl 
women prepare food in the hut described in the last Chapter,fl 
which has been repaired or renewed for this occasion. Herel 
all the guests assemble, the two sexes sitting apart. The women I 
of the family serve out the supplies from the diminutive door to I 



' Captain Forsjth, i 
Bygas, ' their bows ; 



his 'Highlands of Central India,' writes of the I 
: made entirely cf the bamboo, "string" and] 



: biaharthkeD,' or / call out\ 



THE DRY FUNERAL. l8l 

the men, who hand them round to all impartially. The repast 
over, dancing is resumed by some, whilst the younger or more • 
active proceed to collect the cow-buffaloes that will be wanted 
for the morrow, and to shut them up in the pound. Mean- 
while, as might be anticipated, the daughters of Eve air their 
finery and keep their bright eyes and teeth in practice. 

The proceedings of the second day are very striking. 
Scene ; — The circular pen, of about thirty feet diameter, with 
surrounding wall, of unusual strength and neatness, about 
five feet high and three and a half or four feet broad, on 
which a dense crowd of people — Todas, Kotas, Badagas, and 
others — are seated, each man with staff and toga. Sun hot. 
Smell strong. Buzz of many voices. Squeak of many in- 
struments, A group of buffaloes within the pound, of which, 
one for each dead man, wears a bell — getti, not konku — 
scared and desperate from the excitement of the festivity, and 
the alarming presence of the noisy multitude on the wall, 
hedging them in on every side. They make frequent timorous 
dashes at the wall : are as often repulsed with shouts and 
stick gesticulations. They crowd again, tails together, horns 
outwards — a habit of defence they have acquired on their hill 
sides to keep off wild animals : then charge the wall again, 
and are again repulsed. These little feints and attitudes of 
defence, keep up the animation of the ring till the moment has 
come ; when theremainsof the dead, the insignificant manes — 
the bit of skull and lock of hair, some handfuls of ashes, a 
knuckle-bone or two — which have been preserved in a comer 
of the dwelling since the day of cremation, and now enclosed 
in the neat plaits of a new mantle, are laid at the gateway of 
the cattle pen : the ashes of the several dead whose obsequies 
are this day being observed, lying in the different folds of one 
single toga. The relatives collect around. No priest — p41al or 
k^vilSI — is present. A little hole is dug in the turf at the very 
opening of the pound ; to which, as before described, each in- 
terested kinsman and woman, each adult and child, approaching 



l82 



THE DRY FUNERAL. 



in succession, takes from it three handfuls of earth, and 
throws toward the group of buffaloes, who now facing the 
barred opening with heads down and eyes distended, stand, in 
the sudden and unwonted silence of this rite, apprehensive of j 
the worst. Three more handfuls arc thrown on to the mantle. 

A small body of young and active men now clamber over ] 
the wall, dropping nimbly into the fold full of these scared 1 
animals. With much dexterity they seize them, singling outi 
one at a time ; two men approaching from behind either side 1 
of the head, grapple the creature's horns, and interlace tlieir-i 
arms over its neck, so as to bring their whole weight and 1 
strength to bear, until they have the animal under control : in i 
which work they are assisted by a third man who keeps a 1 
purchase on the extended tail, whilst others, with what 
appeared to me insufficient motive, belaboured its back with 
their sticks. 

I am induced to the belief that the motive was insufficient, 
because these cattle would no doubt have permitted them- 
selves to be caught far more readily without any beating. 
Hence I conclude that the object in maltreating the animal 
which is habitually used with consideration, and that knows 
and obeys their voice so well, must have some hidden 
meaning. But what that meaning may be I cannot suggest J 
for the people arc singularly free from superstition. 

It has been .stated that, in former times, when less subject 1 
to the police, the animals were on these occasions, clubbed, ■ 
' not to death, but to inability to move, by a broken spine;] 
and then left to die in agony.'* But, in my opinion, this J 
account needs confirmation. Mr. Metz tells me he has sceQ'l 
a buffalo killed by the club which is depicted on photograph-l 
No. 15, and which they often carry at these festivals ; but the J 
deed was accidental. The fact still remains that on the occasion 1 
of funerals the Todas treat their cattle with unusual violence, j 

' Leticrfrom theCoilcctor of Coimbatorelo the Government of Madras, J 
n the Revenue Department, dated 1856. 



THE DRV FUNERAL. 183 

When all the animals have thus been seized, and stand 
grouped in the pen, in separate knots, each consisting of a ■ 
snorting buffalo, hard held, head and tail, by a few perspiring 
and breathless men. the bars of the gateway are withdrawn. 
One struggle more on the part of the cattle, as they pass 
through the gateway, to get free. Then the plunging, scuffling 
masses are brought down to the Sthdri!. where, one by one, 
as narrated in the last chapter, these milch cows are killed. 
As each is felled, and comes down on its knees, the mantle 
containing the ashes of the dead is laid on the ground, so that 
the nose of tlie prostrate creature may rest on the cloth, 
giving out its life in contact with her master's remains. 

The mourners, at this time fondle the animal's face, as in 
the first funeral, giving way to tears with every appearance of 
deep and poignant grief In their wailing, ' the expressions of 
sorrow,' writes Mr, Metz, 'to which they give utterance, are 
generally in the form of questions to (the spirit of ?) the de- 
ceased ; such as " Are you suffering from fever ? " " Arc your 
buffaloes thriving ? " " Why did you leave us so soon ? " " 
" Have you gone to amn6r ? " ' 

Mr, Metz found that in the midst of this crying they would 
hold out their hands to him for a present ; from which circum- 
stance he concludes that the lamentations are uttered, not from 
gricf.butsimplypursuant to established custom. I conceive that 
formerly, when the obsequies took 'place very shortly after 
the green funeral, these cries were probably genuine, but 
that the postponement of the ceremonies of the dry funeral 
for the period of about a year, has no doubt injured the reality 
of the scene. 

I have said that one buffalo for each person whose funeral 
is being celebrated, wears a beli — getti. This bell is not holy, 
but purchased in the bazaar. I could not And a reason for 
the practice, receiving the usual answers to my enquiry : ' It 
is shastr,' or ' It is our custom,' or ' Der or Sw^mi made it so.' 

' Often said, ' Vou have been but (hrce days with" us.' 



THE DRY FUNERAL. 

• CHAP. It may be, tliat the bell is a religious symbol or the bell-god^ 
■ — konku dcr. (Note, that herds of cattle, ordinary village 
droves, never wear a bell) 

I was careful to ascertain if, as has been asserted, a priest 
superintended on these occasions. My informant, the cx~ 
paidl, told me, ' We — the paiSl and k^vilal — have no duties at 
a kCdu, nor do we receive presents after a death. If anyone \ 
has seen us at a funeral, it is because we want to know whal 
is going on in the di.strict, for we live such lonely lives, 
we keep at a distance, because no one may touch us.' 

What I have narrated, is a just description of funeralV 
obsequies properly executed, and as indeed, so far as j 
herence to form goes, they are carried out to this day. But j 
have ascertained, without any doubt remaining in my i 
mind, the truth of what Dr. Shortt has written;^ that ol^ 
and barren cows arc often slain at these funerals,^ It ' 
formerly the custom to despatch a considerable number of thff 
deceased's own herd for his support in amnor. But whether 
the rise in value of buffaloes, or any increase of relative poverty 
amongst the people, has rendered them loath to deprive the 
living of a valuable means of sustenance ; or if the fact of 
the Governing Power having limited the slaughter, has de- 
moralised their minds, are points which I cannot decide. The 
truth remains, that whilst stiil believing in the necessity for 
providing the deceased with nutriment, they practically lessen 
that reduced limit, by despatching what no one knows better 
than they do, is actually worthless. 

This early step in civilisation is, then, a pace backwards 
— commercial gain, by moral loss. 

On the morning after the bara kedu, before daybreak, the 
mantle containing the ashes is taken to the SthSre, at which 
the original crentation took place. Another buffalo is then 
killed — a male if for a Pciki or Pekkan : a female if for any of 



e Chapter 



n the SI 



s of nicknames. 




MY INFORMANT. 



THE DRY FUNERAL. 



1S5 



the otlier three dans — and blood having been taken from the CHAP, 
artery of one of the fore legs, at the point of junction with the . — ,_ 1^ 
body, it is sprinkled on the piece of skull preserved from 
cremation. Nothing is said at the time, and the Todas have 
no name for the ceremony beyond describing it as, bakh 
nirrzhk idu, or ' put the blood to the ashes." The mantle and 
its contents are now completely burnt' 

In none of the ceremonies described, have I seen any active 
acknowledgment of the existence of a God. 

The main object of the festivities appears to be to gratify a 
pious desire to further the material welfare of their friend in 
amnor, and to bow him out of this world with ceremony and 
honour. The whole is a grave, practical affair, in which their 
natural fondness for a prolonged sensation, their domestic and 
also their wasteful dispositions are all thoroughly gratified. He 
has gone to amnfir. Send one or two cows at once, at time of 
death — with more, with plenty, to follow. They are as realistic 
in this matter as the ancient, Britons, who used to give post- 
obits payable in the next world. When asked what became 
of infants who died, they said, ' Those who have gone before, 
take care of them.' Their little programme is cut and dry, 
and the people, harmless race, are quite comfortable in their 
belief. 

If the hut erected for these obsequies was made for a woman, 
it is now burnt If for a man, it is not touched.^ 

The Kotas remove the carcases. 

* Mr. Meti very kindlygave me the information contained in this para- 
graph. I believe it likely that the personal property ; flule, bow and 
arrows, are also burnt at this lime, and not prior to the festivities. The 
circumstances narrated are correct, though perhaps their sequence is not 
so. It is not easy to obtain absolutely reliable information from these 
untutored people : and I did not witness either of the two c 
myselt 

» Mr. Metz authorises this statement. 



1 86 RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXIL 

RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 

Toda Religion^ a development from a Material Nucleus^ The Milk-giver 
an object of Deep Reverence — Milkfnen are Priests, then Gods — Todas 
have a bias in favour of Light as the Manifestation of Divinity — Not 
Idolatrous — Do not make offerings to a God^Believe in Transmigra^ 
tion — Callous on Demonolatry — Influenced in religious matters by 
other Races — Todas of Turanian stage of culture, 

CHAI'. What we have seen in Toda rites and ceremonies, is little 

xxir 
^ ^ '_r else than the arrangements which a pastoral and communistic 

people have made for the provision and care of an article of 

food, doubtless at one time essential, not merely for due 

sustenance, but to their very existence in the land. These 

customs having through the course of ages so mellowed as to 

have acquired all the effect and influence of sanctity, we find 

ourselves now in the interesting position of actual witnesses 

to tlie growth of the earliest germs of religious belief and 

observance, as they develop in the mind of primitive man 

from the material nucleus whence they originated. 

We note that stage, when the cow, the milk-giver and 
support on which the people have depended almost from all 
time, has grown from an object of the greatest solicitude, to 
become one of deep reverence, and — so far as they have yet 
learnt to express themselves — of worship. The flesh is not 
eaten. Its milk is almost sacred. The chattels of early herds 
— the cow-bell in particular — have matured into Gods, and 
dairies bear the conception of temples. 

We find that common milkmen have, by virtue of the 



RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 



187 



sacred nature of such office, advanced in popular estimation CHAP. 

until they are viewed in the aspect of priests. The high ■— ^ 

priest, from being a servant of certain Gods, has become con- | 

fused with Godhead itself. A family styling itself ' sons of 
the Gods,' has developed — tliough without arrogation to caste 
pretensions — into a Levitical clan, inheritors of the highest 
priestly office ; its males being prepared and chastened 
thereto in sacred groves, by the use of a plant set apart for 
the purpose, and by abstinence from sensual pleasures ; the 
females of the entire tribe, being not only excluded from par- 
ticipation in such duties, but debarred approach to all holy 
precincts. 

These points appear to me to embrace the whole of what 
may be held to be Toda — performed — religion unadulterated. 

They acknowledge the existence of Gods, perhaps even of 
a Supreme God — Usuru' Sw4mi— but their ideas on the subject 
arc quite undeveloped. 1 think I trace in them a partiality 
to the regard oi light — apart from fire — as par excellence, the 
manifestation of divinity. Their beliefs, whatever they may 
be, are so little attended with formal signs of adoration, that 
we cannot, witli any degree of confidence, assert this or that 
to be their creed. Still I believe I have grounds for the opinion 
that these people have a strong bias in favour of light ; * the 
natural bent of their mind being such, that if any other race 
would work out for them the idea, connecting Usuru Sw.lmi 
with some such attribute of divinity as light, they could soon 
be brought to exalt Bel into ' a king above all gods : ' the . 
more readily if deference to the cow was inculcated with such 
a teaching, 

1 submit the suggestion as one having a possible value in 
determining the ethnic affinities of the Toda race: and as 

■ Sec noic 3 of Chnpter XU. 

' Note the Toda words in Chapter XXIX., showing how frequently 
the word 'bel' occurs, even in my small vocubulary ; see daiva, light, 
silver, bird, ■wltilr. Also, the names of men, and of Gods, given in 
previous Chapters. 




188 RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 

. CHAP, pointing to an interesting stage in Turanian progress ; 
1 — r— ^ whence various ancient creeds have sprung and ramified. 

Tlic Toda religion has not the slightest sympathy with 
idolatry, nor does it pay attention to natural objects, as trees 
or rivers : to birds, beasts, or reptiles : nor to the elements. 
No oflferings to a. God, whether of flesh — human or animal — 
or fruit of the soil, are made : no human victims and no 
self-torture. It is not that they have risen above such 
prejudices ; they seem to me rather, not to have attained the 
stage when religious observances commence. Circumcision is 
not performed. The memory of forefathers is piously re- 
garded, but the feeling has not expanded through veneration, 
into any form of hero-worship. 

They believe in transmigration, but whether of soul or body 
probably few have formed very distinct ideas. The funeral 
service seems to favour the idea that the transition of the 
soul is the dogma which, though unexpressed, lies like an 
instinct in their minds : coupled with the idea that the soul is 
a living solid, a real duplicate Toda requiring food. But the 
whole scheme of their observances is so illogical, that it is im- 
possible to deduce therefrom any clear definition of a creed. 

Endeavour has been made in Chapters VIII. and IX. to 
convey, in brief terms, the reasons for my confidence, that 
sobriety, and general abstinence from exciting meat diet, are 
largely natural to this people. The practice certainly forms at 
present no part of their religious observance. . 

I would place the state of their belief in witchcraft and the 
work of demons and other unseen agencies, somewhat on a 
parallel with that of their knowledge of Divine work. Neither 
one nor the other, troubles them much. Perhaps I may best 
-, define the relative feeling, by saying, that they fear the former 
and hope most of .he latter. Though they do, to a certain 
extent, practise demonolatry, they do not do so with the en- 
thusiasm of other primitive races o.' South India. Indeed 
I had not one opportunity of witnessing feats of exorcism. 



RELIGIOUS CULTURE. 



what I have described, they have been influenced tlirough the ~, 
proximity of cognate races, who themselves, again, have at 
different periods, been variously Hinduized or inoculated with 
the strange customs of other tribes in India, cognate or other- 
wise. Thus, through the Aryas, tJie Toda sense of adoration 
has been educated ; more Gods have been introduced than he 
knows what to do with : and his natural love of relics has been 
intensified and improved. From being at first memorials of 
cattle herds, the relics have grown to be venerated souvenirs of 
ancestors. On the other hand, the mildness and contentedncss 
of the tribe, have — so I think — led them to drop or to avoid 
much of the demonolatrous habit of other members of that 
Dravidian race to which they belong. Certainly any superior 
ideas ; any notions of the sou!, or of sin, and all forms of in- 
vocation in prayer, small as even collectively they may appear 
to be, bear the appearance of their having come to them 
through the instrumentality of the Aryas ; partly, no doubt, 
from Brahmanical sources : in part perhaps, in course of some 
very early contiguity, antecedent to the migration of either 
race, from a common cradle land, into India. Even the waste 
of good meat is to my mind suggestive of similar influences. 

I will conclude this chapter in the words of Mr. Baring- 
Gould, which, applied to the Turanian state of progress, are 
equally descriptive of Toda culture. ' Impressed with a 
vague and child-like sense of the mysterious, it has not 
advanced into the idealising stage. God to the nomads of 
Nortliern Asia, is awful, undefined. They feel His presence 
about them, above them, and, with dazzled and bewildered 
mind, seek to know nothing r. 



' Baring-Could, ' The Origin and Devdo| 



jpment of Religious Belief.' 




CHAPTER XXIII. 



INFANTICIDE. 



Jnfantkide frobably, at some time, practised by every Race — Prime^ial 
man's early difficultks — His Invention for restricting ike Expansion 
of his Race — Infanticide perhaps marks a Stage in human Progress — 
The ancient Britons infanticidai — Infanticide of primitive Races a 
•work of Love — Infanticide may be extinct, •whilst Statistics imply its 
CoHtinuanee — A dynamical problem solved by the Todas — Infanticide 
Ike crime of weak Races, 9f Dolichocephali, 

The more closely we enquire into the origin or causes of 
' infanticide — writing of the practice, not in the light of a vulgar 
crime, to be ranked with murder, but as a national remedy 
for tiding over family difficulties — tlie more certainly will it 
be proved that it bears an antiquity as great, and a freshness 
in its latest instances as modern, as every other malpractice 
which owes inducements in its commission to the suggestions 
of weak dispositions, or to good though mistaken motives. 

We read of the custom prevailing, under one pretext or 
another, among savage or primitive people in the earliest 
narratives that have been chronicled in writing. We hear of 
it also in classic times as the common habit of nations then 
setting examples of civilisation. It is not only the modem 
practice of this representative of a prehistoric race, but it is 
the present custom of other tribes and nationalities — both 
those, possibly cognate to the Todas, and some which, oc- 
cupying tracts in distant parts of the world, must have been 
distinct from them through long ages of time. 

Frobably, no nation can justly escape the chaise of being 



INFANTICIDE. 



igi 



descended of infanticidal ancestors, if only the vast antiquity chap. 
and the vast helplessness of the human race be duly considered. - 

Primeval man, in the earliest stage of a silvan life, would 
have depended for his very existence on such natural products 
of the land as he could readily obtain by means of his hands, 
aided by simple auxiliaries, as sticks and stones. Berries, 
roots and sprouts, insects and small vermin would have 
formed the first diet of omnivorous man. In due course, and 
under the demand on his intelligence for the support of an 
ever-increasing brood, he would have added variety and 
value to his food by hunting and fishing. But many genera- 
tions would have lived and died, and long ages may have 
elapsed, ere the climax of husbandry had been attained, and 
man learnt to domesticate an animal and subsist on its milk. 

Meanwhile the rude, untaught ancestor, relying upon 
natural sources, was the sport of vicissitudes of climate. Bad 
seasons destroyed the fruit on the trees, and dried up the 
herbage and springs. Birds and beasts competed with him 
for the food that remained. Families of man, herds of animals, 
flocks of birds, all acting under pressure of the identical 
necessity, would, up to a certain point, now act alike. The 
first impulse would be, to spread, to migrate. These separated 
families formed fresh nuciei, whence, at an accelerated rate 
of progress, tribes would expand on all sides. Nature would 
repeat herself. Migrations of whole tribes would succeed ; 
and again the spectre of ever-increasing families, and no food. 

Even though man migrated ever so slowly, the condition of 
change implies expo.sure, failure of supplies, and wars with 
tribes whose estates were encroached upon. Hampered by 
the weak, the aged, and deformed — supported through his 
humanity — and by the sex which, in the midst of all these 
difficulties, still devoted much time to bringing new members 
into a world alreatdy too full, our forefathers were fairly 
brought to bay. 

In animal nature there are processes at work, tending to 



192 



INFANTICIDE. 



, preserve some relation between the number of mouths to be 
- filled and the amount of food available ; and if only sufficient 
time be allowed for them to work, an equipoise is certainly 
established, in a way which we are accustomed to term 
'naturally.' Not so with primitive man. Not being sufficiently 
prudent to abstain from marriage, he is constantly face to face 
with starvation. 

One of the early proofs of untutored man's superiority over 
the animal, was supplied in the scheme he now devised to 
prevent a recurrence of famine. Migrations had failed ; had 
probably even aggravated the difficulties he was ordinarily 
exposed to. The pace was growing too fast ; human mouths 
were multiplying more rapidly than the human intellect could 
discover means of providing them with food. He noted 
that it was in this expanding habit of his people, and in the 
number of unproductive members, lay the danger \o his race 
of dying from starvation : and he entertained no such hope 
that Nature could by any means be made to render more pro- 
vision than what with ceaseless gleaning he had hitherto 
taken from her. 

It must have been then ; with hope gone, and annihilation 
staring him in the face, that he applied his incipient talent to 
the invention of an artifice for rcstrictiNg tlie expansive capaci- 
ties of his race. He little knew the dangerous nature of the 
stake he played for life, 'rushing in where angels fear to 
tread.' But in those cases where families did not suffer ex- 
termination by the drastic process which had in good faith 
been designed to save them, there time was gained, for man's 
child-like brain in its torpid evolution, to devise additional 
methods of gaining a living. ■ 

Thus, as I believe, infanticide of the nature described— ■ 
true native of climes most favourable to human growth: trufi-^ 
offspring of undeveloped races — is an institution which, like 
others we now heartily condemn, has in its time served a 
useful and practical end. A protest against the unaided and 



INFANTICIDE. 193 

helpless condition in which they found themselves in the 
world ; Infanticide was probably the wisest because the only ■ 
possible course for our barbarous forefathers to pursue. It 
perhaps even marks a necessary stage of human prepress. 

It is a custom of primitive races to consider on matters of 
grave tribal importance, in meetings of Eiders — styled by the 
Todas kOtacdram. Sucli an august assembly would probably 
have decided whether, under certain such circumstances as we 
have been reviewing, the national course should take the 
direction of destroying the sick, the aged, or infants, 

Herodotus describes, in an amusing manner, of some bar- 
barous race, how a. young man, sentenced to death because he 
was iickly, protested, and in vain, that he was in good health. 

Ancient history tells us that in some at least of the States 
of Ancient Greece, the destruction of both sexes, born weak or 
deformed, was cither commanded or allowed, 

Amongst some living savages it is the practice to despatch 
the aged as they become feeble — all for the general good. 

The systematic infanticide of girls is the remaining and 
most common alternative. I shall be able to show, in course 
of the chapters on the subject of polyandry, that some tribes 
of the ancient Britons practised female infanticide. 

In proportion as nations advance in civilisation, property 
and wealth acquiring enhanced importance in public estima- 
tion, other and more complex considerations take the place of, 
or are superadded to, the list of original simple motives for 
limiting the size of families. But with them we have not in 
this little volume, any immediate concern, beyond suggesting 
the possibility that advanced races which largely practise 
female infanticide, may be, and probably are direct descend- 
ants of infanticidal ancestors — the typic cranial form remaining, 
though doubtless, somewhat developed — the aboriginal practice 
not having completely died out, but only changed in the direc- 
tion and force of its current. In perfectly primitive races, 
their whole habit being simple, and the connection between 




INFANTICIDE. 

CHAP, their motives and their action proximate and, uninvolved, 

' ■ have the ready means afibrded us of tracing, by a compara- 
tively short and easy road, up to first causes, and thus of 
acquiring an insight into human impulse, which may prove 
serviceable even in judging of more complicated races, and 
must ever be interesting to obtain. 

Fortunately for the preservation of the human race, which 
must otherwise have become extinct, primitive tribes are 
greatly attached to their children. We may safely assume, 
therefore, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that 
where wholesale destruction of progeny by the parents them- 
selves, is looked on as an obligation which has devolved on them 
in order to save their race from destruction — where in fact, it is 
largely a work of love — there the act would be performed 
without needless violence. In those tribes where children are 
killed in a heartless manner ; whether by prolonged neglect 
or in some actively cruel method, we shall probably not be 
far wrong in ascribing such action to selfish, ignoble motives. 

The following is the interesting evidence of an aged Toda, 
who speaks of what has been enacted under his own eyes. I 
give the narration very nearly in his own words ; — 

■ I was a little boy when Mr, Sullivan ' visited these 
mountains. In those days^t was the custom to kill children ; 
but the practice has long died out, and now one never hears 

of it 

' I don't know whether it was wrong or not to kill them, 
but we were very poor, and could not support our children. 
Now every one has a mantle — putkuU — but formerly there 
was only one for the whole family, and he who had to go out 
took the mantle ; the rest remaining naked at home : naked 
all but the loin-cloth-^kfivn. 



' Mentioned in Chapter VIII., Note 3. The English officer who first 
mounted the Nilagiri plaieau, and visited the homes of Ihe Todas. Events 
of Toda importance all date from the visit of Sulaivan Dore, as we quote 
the Christian era. 



INFANTICIDE. 195 

'We did not kill them to please any God, but because it 

s our custom. ^ 

•The mother never nursed the child — no, never! and the 
parents did not kill it. How could we do so I Do you think 
we could kill it ourselves ! 

• Those tell lies who say we laid it down before the opening 
of the buffalo pen, so that it might be run over and killed by 
the animab ! ' We never did such things! and it is all non- 
sense, that we drowned it in buffalo's milk ! ' • 

' Boys were never killed— only girls ; not those who were 
sickly and deformed — tliat would be a sin — papum ; but when 
we had one girl,* or in some families two girls, those that 
followed were killed. 

'This is the way it was done. An old woman — kelachi' — 
used to take the child immediately it was born, and close its 
nostrils, ears, and mouth, with cloth thus" — here pantomimic 
action. ' It would shortly droop its head and go to sleep. 
We then buried it in the ground." The kelachi got a present 
of four annas ' for the deed. 

' 1 don't know if the infants thus killed, go to amnflr. Who 
can tell such a thing 1 ' 

' 1 find the following passage in a letter from the Collector of Coim- 
batore, dated 25th June, 1856, to the address of the Secretary to the 
Government of Fort St. George, very kindly placed at my disposal by the 
Revenue Department, Madras ; ' The mode of destroying the infant, if a 
female, is by exposing It the next morning at the door of the cattle kiaal j 
when first opened, the whole herd, half wild, rush over and annihilate the 
wretched infant — the Todas never lifting their own hand against it' 

' This response had reference to a report then current, of this second 
mode of destroying children. 

* The truth of this statement is confirmed by a letter from Mr. J. 
Sullivan, Collector of Coimbatore, dated Sth July, 1S20, to the Secretary 
to the Governor of Fort Sl George. 

' Also means ' a female friend.' See Chapter VII., Note I. 

' It will be remembered that Todas turn their dead. By burying these 
infants, can It b«, that the people thought they had got rid of them Jar 
cvir and ever} Hence my question, to which the next paragraph forms 
a reply. 

' Four annas is equal to sixpence of English money. 



196 INFANTICIDE. 

I am well convinced that the old man spoke the strict truth J 
in describing the pfactice of infanticide as a thing of the pastjfl 

basing my belief, on the general appearance of things, ratherlj 
than on statistics, (i.) If the custom still prevailed, the cir-9 
cumstance could not have remained hidden from the people o 
neighbouring tribes, with whom a very close degree of inti-J 
macy is maintained : and its commission forming a topic of « 
conversation in their bazaars and meetings, the news would m;] 
due course certainly have reached our ears. (2.) The people J 
sitting before us, in course of close examination as to thej 
number and condition of their families, would undoubtedly* 
have evinced by manner or voice, if at any time, we i 
approaching a dreaded and secret subject (3.) Two, three^^ 
and even four living daughters were met with in families : and J 
I may add, th^ girls looked in very good condition and asJ 
well cared for, as the rest of the household. 

In the year 1822 — or 48 years prior to the date of myfl 
census — the Government of Madras put a pressure on thej 
Todas, in order to impel them to forsake their murdcrousl 
practice.' But no statistics exist, and none can now be formed, ( 
that will afford us means of judging the actual state of the>1 
habit, anterior to that date, 

In_a previous chapter of this book — in that treating on the J 
Cen.sus— the average age at which Toda women commence toj 
bear children, is noted as 17 years. Those women therefore, T 
who are 48 + 17 = 65 years old, must be the earliest who show! 
the effect of the Government's repressive action. Hence it ia^m 
that we must look to the information r^arding births andJ 
deaths which has been afforded by the mothers, rating from ] 



' Owing to a deficiency in the records of the Madras Government, wo 1 

do nol know how infanticide was actually stopped; but the orders given j 

in its letter of 2tst July, 1820, were to frustrate the practice 'by aU ] 
means of encouragement and persuasion.' In carrying these orders ii 

effect, 1 believe that the persuasion employed was of an impressive I 
character. 



INFANTICIDE. 



Table No. VIII. 
^Compiled from ' Statistics of Toda Families,' Table No. IV., in 
order to ascertain tlie progress made towards checking Infanti- 
cide. Arranged according to the * present ages of Wives' 



I 

1 

i 

6o 
60 

SS 
55 
55 
5° 
SO 
50 
45 
45 
45 
45 
43 

42 

40 
40 
40 
3S 
35 
30 
30 

28 

% 

*5 
S5 
as 

*4 
a4 

30 
ao 
■S 


8 

1 


D>uil 1 AUtnct 


1 


Progear 


Alin 


»«, 


-1 


AU« 


DoLd 


Bon 


,.^SSZS^ 


M. 


r. 


M. 


F. 






U. 


F, 


M 


F 

S 
5 

5 

3 


H 


F 


A. 


D. 


B. 


3 


4 






» 


7 
9 

< 
'7 


9 
9 


»3 
16 

30 
z6 


IS 

14 

n 

20 


'S 


i« 


•^ 


.8 


4 

53 

1 

28 
^^ 
43 

42 

36 
37 
45 

!3 

54 

3 
'5 

44 

iS 

'i 
1 

5' 

38 
40 

29 
16 
»4. 
55 
14 




3 
3 

4 

3 

53 


5 
3 

0. 
33 


3 


los 




14 
17 

18 

*4 


50 
519 

708 


B89 

SS-6 

4>'7 

150 


53-8 
83-3 

77 

• 


1 

li 
II 
li 

B1 

Is 
« 

ii 
If 

si 




73 


71-6 


656 


70-5 



INFANTICIDE. 




[ CHAP. 65 years down to the youngest married women, if \ 
■"- trace the abatement of infanticide. 

It is much to be regretted that the statistics of Table No. 8 i 
do not afford a record so complete as could be desired ; even j 
to the degree I had fondly calculated on their doing, in the I 
course of our careful enquiries in the field. The instances, 
though certainly few in number, should distinctly have pointed 
to the change that was being effected in the course of forty- 
eight years ; by enabling us to trace some sort of declining 
scale in the contrast of the sexes. The disproportion between 
males and females is indeed great in the Table, but it neither 
increases nor lessens in any form of sequence. 

I have allowed the Table a place in these pages, despite | 
its acknowledged deficiencies, and notwithstanding that the j 
statistics, taken by themselves, give every appearance of the J 
venerable practice being in full vigour, whilst I am fully con- 
vinced by the circumstantial evidences which I have given, J 
that such is not the truth. I have done so, because it thusj 
obtains a value, in showing that the practice of infanticide maf*^ 
be extinct, ■whilst statistics indicate its actual prevaleitce : that, 1 
in fact, the strange numerical difference in the sexes, which j 
the census shows to amount to 25 per cent., implies with cer— I 
tainty, only that infanticide has lately been practised. If the J 
custom were in its fullest possible force, consistent with th&j 
preservation of the race, the sexual divei^ence would be a 
great as 100 to 33'3 ; a proportion which allows one girl oik, 
an averse, to every family — with less than which allowance^J 
the race could not survive. 

My readers will have noticed in Chapter XI. the suggestion,! 
that a curious result of long continued infanticide, has been t 
create a male-producing variety of the human ra 

It will 4>e observed that in the Table, the proportion < 
females who have died, to lOO males, is 656 : whilst of thoi 
alive, it is 72-6. This discrepancy bears evidence to the] 
inaccuracy of the statistics. Judging from the circumstance^ 



■ INFANTICIDE. 



attending the census, and the personal care bestowed on it, to CHAP..J 
obtain genuine results, I have every reason to think that the « 
record of those alh<e, is as nearly correct as possible : but 
I have not the same confidence as r^ards those who had 
I died. I attribute much of this inaccuracy to the imperfect 
memory of the people, in describing events long past — a 
person once dead, being rarely talked about — but very largely 
also to their habit of ignoring the gentler sex. 

That such a habit should really exist, was su^ested to my 
mind, on observing how much girls were left out of count 
when they described the numbers in families, and of how great 
importance the birth of a son was esteemed. If a Toda is 
asked how many children — kinmokh — he has, his 'reply will 
almost invariably be, so many sons — mokh:' and if further 
information is desired as to his daughters, one has to specify 
tiljmokh. On one occasion a father replied to the usual 
enquiry, ' 1 have five sons.' ' Where are they ? ' * There — 
i> 2. 3, 4. 5-' I could only see four. Two or three times the 
numbers were gone over, each time the man gravely counting 
five, I finding only four. So, pointing to each in succession, 
I enumerated i — 2 — 3 — 4, Where is the fifth ? 'There,' he 
said, pointing to his wife, who quietly nodded approval. It 
seems that the good woman had not yet given birth to the 
child which both parents had agreed to consider a son ! 

Viewing human action, ever as the resultant of many forces 
— passions, necessities, emotions, habits — pulling in divers di- 
rections, with various dt^rees of strength ; we find that the 
Todas very early in the world's history, practically solved 
the difficult physical problem of finding the condition of equi- 
librium of those especial forces which affected them ; how, 
in fact, to stand still in a world, the law of wliose nature is 
that of perpetual change — a remarkable example of the 

' Mr. Meli asserts positively thai ihe word mokh is used by ihe Todas 
for son, and not for child. In other DrSvidian dialects it may have ex. 
panded in its application so as to mean children, both male and female. 




20O INFANTICIDE, 

compensatory skill of savages, which ihey < 
- their large organ of Weight 

In the description of the Toda character, founded on phro 
nologic basis, which I afforded in previous chapters, I have"" 
endeavoured to express, how weak tliey are in those groups 
of mental qualities which enable men to surmount difficulties 
in life by the force of their natural energies ; how that their 
whole nature is built for the maintenance of the existing 
state of things : how free from cruelty, and how fond of 
children : how practical their character, though limited in 
range of vision : and how deficient in tenacity. 

I have also tried to enable my readers to realise the early 
state of things ; when the increase of numbers due to the 
luxurious nature of an equatorial climate had outstepped 
the supply of food : and the growth of human intellect — 
giving the ability to augment the supply — had failed to keep 
pace with the growing density of the population. 

Now, resolve all these forces — the natural tendencies of 
primitive man, and the circumstances by which surrounded — 
in such direction as exactly to neutralise one another ; and 
you work out the problem which the Todas had to solve. 
Only three courses were open to them : (i.) The progressive 
exercise of combined labour and skill. (2.) Abstinence from 
marriage. (3.) Destruction of children. . 

They tried the first, and failed. In regard to the second, 
Nature, who Is ever careful of her own interests, was doubtless 
altogether too strong for them. We see they adopted the 
third course, but in such manner as to give their gentle 
natures — gentle above all to children — the least sufl'ering. by 
killing the infants without pain, and before the parents had 
opportunity to love them. 

The great similarity in the dispositions of the two sexes 
assures mc that mothers co-operated with fathers willingly 
in the deed. 

If the Todas had possessed a large organ of Acjuisitivaiess, 



INFANTICIDE. 20I 

the desire to have, to possess, to retain, would never have CHAP. 

tolerated continued loss of property : but by husbanding ■ , — 1- 

resources, and by inspiring the remaining organism to repeated 

exertion, would have contrived somehow or in some way to J 

preserve their children. Large Philoprogenitiyeness combined I 

with Acquisitiveness, both frustrated, would have caused them I 

madly to covet children. The burden of their daily cry would I 

have been H 

Give me children, or else I die. I 

With such organisation it would have been impossible to live I 

without young, and the equilibrium which they formed, would ■ 

have included the preservation of tlieir progeny. The equi- I 

poise would probably have been produced, primarily by the I 

hoarding of food, in the manner of ants. The race would I 

have been great in the preservation of meat, and the formation I 

of beaver-like dams for the storage of water. I 

But if their heads had also been gifted with large organs I 

of Constructiveness, Secretiveness, Destructiveness, and Com- I 

bativeness ; had they, in fact, .been bracbyccphalic, their innate I 

ingenuity and vigour, would, by enabling them to overcome I 

difficulties, have obviated even the necessity to consider the I 

matter of infanticide. The tribe would not have been in- ■ 

fanticidal. I 

We see then, that the wholesale infanticide, of primitive 1 

races is not the brutal evidence of an aggressive savage vigour, I 

but the contrary. It is the retrograde step which ignorant I 

tribes of weak and amiable dispositions took to escape the I 

natural consequences of tlieir own helplessness. They may be I 

recognised at a glance, by the long narrow dolichocephalic H 

head, formed as if a vertical slice had been cut off from either I 

side. ■ 

In process of time, as the cranium of early man expands, I 

from the narrow to the broad type, his disposition changes ; I 

he may become cannibal, but he ceases to kill infants ■ 



202 INFANTICIDE. 

CHAP, from the motives, and in the gentle manner 'described in 

XXIII. ^, . . * 
— , — ^ this chapter. 

The Toda's conservative sense — quite bestial in its univer- 
sality — must have been much gratified at the success of his 
practical scheme ; little suspecting, and caring still less, that 
when, by this infanticide, he had stopped the expanding 
power of his race,' he had also, in removing one of the greatest 
incentives to labour that Nature has presented to us, inter- 
cepted national progress and development 



POLYANDRY. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



POLYANDRY. 



I Polyandry defined — Imlancts in various parts of the world of Polyandry 
— Among the Celtic Britons — Laws of Inluritana — Re-marriage of 

Widows — Disgrace of being Childless — Desire for Children. 

The polyandrous state is that form of polj^amy which, 
as practised by the Todas, may both correctly and concisely . 
be described as being the lawful marriage of one woman ivitk 
several m^n, either brothers or near relations. 

We must not allow our conception of savage matrimony — 
no matter what its form — to be cramped by comparing it too 
rigidly by our experfences of the ' holy state ' in civilised life. 
Remember that barbarians, in the very nature and degree of 
their social condition, live in most primitive form. Their 
houses are crowded to excess : their clothes are scant : their 
ceremonies, free of all symbol, inference, or poetry, are bald, 
simple and direct, Toda marriage, strange as its nature may 
appear to be, nevertlieless merits honour equally with those 
other and better understood forms of matrimony, commonly 
contracted by primitive or even semi-barbarous races. 

From the days of our childhood we have been educated to 
the spectacle of tlie Turk and his score of wives— perhaps, 
rather respecting the awful man, for his prowess in ruling such 
a household of women and children. We know, also, that his 
form of polygamy is the ancient habit of many existing 
nations, as it was of races which have long since passed away : 
and that the practice has, within the memory of the present 
generation, been revived in a modern Christian community. 



204 



POLYANDRY, 



The Toda woman is restricted by the force of circumstances, 
to consort with from four to five husbands. Her marriage is 
also quite respectable ; and in point of antiquity, it probably 
' whips creation.' She weds for life, ' for better, for worse 
and the married couple give actual security for good b< 
viour. 

That this practice is neither a modem creation nor peculiar 
to the Todas alone, history and works of modem travel 
afford ample evidence. It will amply suffice for our purpose 
to quote a few instances. 

The Bible, in making frequent mention of customs of 
the barbarians — in the midst of whom we find the Jews, on 
their first rising to notice, embedded — strictly analogous 
to those which obtain amongst the Todas, in respect to 
matrimony ; leads us irresistibly to the conclusion that poly- 
andry was, in those early days, an old and well-established 
institution in the world. And that such is really the truth, 
will become more and more evident, as from time to time, 
in the course of these pages, I have recourse to Scripture in 
drawing attention to ancient usage. Indeed tlic strong 
feeling I entertain, that in the Todas, we have actually a living 
specimen of some of these races, renders the reference to the 
historical evidence of the Bible, the more fascinating, as it is 
important 

Polyandry was a recognised institution ' amongst the 
famous Aryas — the race to which we English, in common 
with most civilised nations, have lately found ourselves to be 
allied by ties of language, and perhaps of consanguinity, j 

It is still practised by portions of that race, now settled in 
the Western Himalayas. 

It has been noted as a custom of the ancient Medes and 
Getes. 

Cxsar's description of the mode of matrimonial alliance, 



ably 
lehaK^H 



' Tftlboys- Wheeler, 'History of India.' 



POLYANDRY. 



205 



which our own British forefathers in Celtip days — before the chap, j 

nation had become EngUsh through suffusion of Teutonic . — -r '"" 

blood— used to form, has been read by every school-boy. ' It 

was common,' writes Caesar, 'for a number of brothers or 

other near relations to use their wives promiscuously.' ' It is 

not perhaps, quite pleasant to be told that such was the custom 

of our own ancestors, and efforts have in consequence been 

made to throw doubt on the correctness of the statement ; 

but that it was indeed the habit of the Celtic portion of the 

inhabitants, I see no cause for doubting. If, as I beUeve to 

be the case, the custom of the ancient Britons, and of the 

Todas, is in this respect, identical, any light which these pages 

may bring to bear upon the curious and ancient practice, 

cannot fail to be accepted with greatly enhanced interest. 

Polyandry prevails also amongst tribes now occupying 
divergent tracts of the Indian Peninsula, but which, speaking 
various dialects of the same DrSvidian language, which is the 
mother-tongue of our Todas, were manifestly at one time, close 
neighbours — viz. in the mountains of Ceylon, and along the 
Southern Ghats. 

It exists at this day amongst the Kalmuks, and has only 
just died out with the last of the Tasmanians. 

It is known to be the practice of ' some families of the 
Iroquois.' * 

We shall be better placed, to understand all the conditions 
of this venerable institution, on perusing the following few 
simple customs— partaking of the full force of laws — in 
regard to the management and inheritance of property ; such 
as land, cattle, food and chattels, which obtain amongst the 
Todas i — 

I, It has already been told that the tribe is divided into 
clans— kflleh.* 

' J. CKsar, ' Dc Bello Gallico.' 

' Lubbock, 'The Origin of Civilization and Primitive Condition of Man.' 

* KAIeh is a Drdvidian — Kanarcse—word, which, though used by the 



2o6 



POLYANDRY. 



II. Each clan has grazing and forest land of Us own, which 
■ is divided between the villages of the clan, each village being 

situated in its own land. 

III. Each village is the abode of a family or intimately 
related portion of a clan, whbse cattle are herded together. 

IV. Whilst the land is in each case, the property of the 
village itself, and cannot be alienated or sold, with or without 
the consent of the occupants ;* the cattle which graze on it, are 
the private property of individuals, being males. 

V. The milk of the entire herd is lodged in the pSlthchi, or 
village dairy, from which each person, male and female, receives 
for his or her daily consumption ;^ the unconsumed balance 
being divided, as personal .and saleable property, amongst 
the male members of all ages, in proportion to the number of 
cattle which each possesses in the herd. 

VI. The grain food collected in the form of kdtu,^ from the 
Badagas, is divided amongst the community. 

VII. No females, whether married or single, possess pro- 
perty: but, under ail circumstances of life, are supported by 
their male relations ; being fed from the common stock. 

VIII. When a father dies, his personal property is divided 
equally among all the sons. If the deceased, being an elder 
brother, should have no sons, his next brother inherits the 
property. 

IX. All children of both sexes, belong to the father's family ; 
and inheritance runs through tlic male line only. Thus (i) 
if a widow should re-marry, her sons by both marriages, have 
claims on their respective father's property, (2) If a widower 
marries again, his property will be inherited by his sons of 
botli marriages, equally. (3) If one or more women are in 
common to several men, each husband considers all the 
Uadagas, is, curiously enough, not employed by the Todas, who have no 



word {at clan. 

' Mr. J. Rreeks, late Commiss 
' See Chapter XVI 1. for the n 
' See Chapter VIIl. on the cu 



r of ihe Neilgher 




P E NTI REM 

(AIDEN OF 14 -TE/ 



POLYANDRY. 



children as his — though each woman is mother only to her CHAP. 

own — and each male child is an heir to the property of all of -^ 1- 

the fathers. 

X. In order to avoid the complications that would arise, in 
the matter of food and the guardianship of property, from • 
the re-marriage of widows, if they entered other families, 
taking their children with them ; either a brother or other 
near relation of her deceased husband, takes her to wife. She 
' remains in the family.' Such is Toda expression. 

The following was early Semitic custom {see Deuteronomy 
XXV. 5) : 'If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, 
and have no child, the wife of the dead shall not marry 
\vithout unto a stranger ; her husband's brother ' — or ' next 
kinsman,' says a marginal note — 'shall go in unto her, and 
take her to him to wife, and perform the duty of an 
husband's brother * unto her.' This practice, is either pure 
polyandry, or it pertains to that extreme communistic state 
of society, to which, as I shall shortly demonstrate, polyandry 
belongs. 

I met on one occasion, the instance of a man who had 
just separated from a very good-looking young wife of about 
fourteen years of age, in order that he might marry his elder 
brother's widow. It was looked on as a matter of course 
that the widow should ' remain in the family : ' and the 
retention of two wives, in a community where the women 
are considerably in the minority, is out of the question. The 
jfirl had immediately espoused another ; for until children 
have been born, the Todas do not mind the marriage of a 
widow out of the family. 

These and other instances of the grave, practical, and 
undeviating nature of this Curious people, made a great 
impression on me at the time. 

Perhaps the feeling which engrosses the Toda mind more 

' To raise up seed unio the brother. 



POLYANDRY, 



than any other, and may be termed his ruling passion, is 
• thd.t of fiea-ssity /or children. 

The first instance which came to light of the serious — 
everything with the Toda is taken au sirieux — nature of this 
topic, was when the women of a certain village had collected 
round us, in obedience to summons ; one was noticed sitting 
conspicuously apart, giving the impression that she was in 
some way tabued. ' What is the matter with her ? Is she 
sick ? ' ' No.' ' Mourning ? ' ' No, not that' ' She is a 
barudi' • they said quietly, and in the pitying tone In which 
one would apply the word 'crazy.' A handsome woman of 
forty, with the eyes and nose of a hawk. She had committed 
no fault ; had added several boys and girls to the population. 
She was not ill, nor deformed, or sulky. She was merely a 
barudi, a widow. Now, it is a reproach to be a widow, unless 
quite old : or to be childless ; the word barudi, in the Toda 
language, bearing the triple meaning of old woman, widow, 
and barren woman. This person, we have seen, was neither 
old nor sterile, yet as a widow who should be, but was not, 
producing children, she was put to shame. 

To be a baruda, or widower, is equally a term of reproach 
for men. 

Another illustration. We met with two brothers — men 
past sixty years of age, whose joint wife had died. In order 
to avoid the disgrace of being styled baruda, as well, doubtless, 
as to obtain the services of some one who could cook their 
meals, they had forthwith married again. But being elderly 
gentlemen, joint fathers of nine children, including twins, 
and not caring for further additions to their family, they had 
selected to be their joint wife, a woman of fifty, who, having 
been discarded as sterile, was then living a single and neglected 
life. 

I have ascertained positively, that so great is the disgrace 

r VII., 



attached to the epithets baruda and barudi, as applied to 
young married people, the husband would connive at any ■ 
steps his wife might take to obtain children. The way 
in which my informant described what would be done in 
these circumstances, leaves no donbt in my mind of the truth 
of what I have written. 

The Bible affords many instances of the display amongst 
primitive tribes of this craving for progeny, and of the 
reproach attaching to sterility. In Genesis xvi., 2 — s, we 
find Sarai prefers that her husband Abram should have 
children by her maid, rather than there should be none in the 
house. We meet witli a similar occurrence, narrated too 
with a clearness that leaves no doubt as to the intention, in 
Genesis xxx., i~^4, in the case of Rachel, the wife of Jacob. 
Again in i Sarrtuel i. The book of Genesis, xxxviii., 26, gives 
another instance, and another motive. 

Of this desire for progeny I have seen many examples 
amongst the Todas, so strongly marked, but to a!l appear- 
ances apart from the sense of personal ambition, and separate 
from any demands of religion '"or requirements for support in 
old age, as to give the impression that it was the primitive 
faculty of Philoprogenitiveness, acting so insensibly, naturally, 
as to have the character more of a plain instinct, tliao of an 
intelligent human feeling. 

There is something very affecting in the spectacle which 
these people present ; so like animals in their primitive 
notions ; closing in round upon one another, huddling together, 
and breeding with such a zeal as if they feared to lose their 
hold on the world. Yet, even, murdering many, that many 
might survive the dreaded danger. 

" This peculiarity has already been n 



POLYANDRY— MARRIAGE. 



1 



CHAP, girl accepts him, he must marry her. The power of taking or 
- — ,-1— rejecting this man who aspires to be her future lord being still 
hers, the opportunity of judging for herself, how far he is to her 
taste, is now afforded her. Most practical and sensible race 1 
In the 'absence of all rites and ceremonies, but with the 
approval of parents, and in full cognisance of the village 
community of relatives, these young people are now held 
to be a married pair, on trial for a day and night. An 
entire house — eight feet square— is given up to them, and in 
this they live with closed door during the short period of pro- 
bation, food being passed in to them by the girl's mother. 
The damsel is required to make up her mind on the expiry 
of this brief honeymoon, either to accept or reject her suitor. 
If she refuse the man, he goes away the subject of depre- 
ciatory remarks. If, on the contrary, she should tell her 
mother that she will have him, the pair are now held to be 
man and wife,' Neither he nor she can recede from their 
bargain without punishment ; which would take the form of a 
fine of some portion of the curious dower, if referred to a 
tribunal of Elders — kOtacaram. 

The husband now gives his wife a necklace,' of value accord- 
ing to his mcans^unmarricd girls do not wear necklaces — 
and sets her up with a new mantle. The bride may receive 
from affectionate parents little trifles towards beginning to keep 
house. I tried to ascertain what would be a welcome present 
on such occasions, but found that after my informant had 
mentioned a brass cup and plate he stumbled so much, I feel 
quite within the bounds of safety if I throw in a pair of brass 
armlets or silver ear-rings. 

The wife now either accompanies her husband to his own 
house, or they both remain in her father's village, according 

' Literally A\-''husbittid' or 'man.' KktvoiX"' ■wi/i' or ' slic tvko it 
bound la me.' See derivation in Chapter VIL, Note 8. 

* Among some of the tribes in South India, marriage is ratified by 
tying a thread or thin sUp of bark round the neck. This practice shows 
the origin of the Toda c 



POLYANDRY— MARRIAGE. 



213 



as may be most convenient to them. In either case, the CHAP.1| 
marriage both in name and in fact, is identical. 

It is the custom for the husband to give a feast to his 
nearest relatives on such a joyous occasion. 

It will be seen that up to this stage, the woman is married 
with her own consent to one man — he who pays the dowry, 
or gives security to society for his own good betiaviour. But 
now, if the husband has brothers or very near relatives, all 
living together, they may each, if bqth she and he consent, 
participate in the right to be considered her husband also, on 
making up a share of the dowry that has been paid. In fact 
it was formerly their almost universal custom — in the days 
when women were more scarce than they are now— for a 
Jiimi(y of near relations to live togetlur in one mand, having 
wife, children and catlk all in common. 

Now if we consider that one or more brothers may each 
become the husbands of separate wives by virtue of having 
each paid a dower, and that younger brothers as they grow to 
age of maturity, and other brothers as they become widowed, 
may each, either take separate wives or purchase shares in 
those already in the family, we can at once understand that 
any degree of complication in perfectly lawful wedded life, 
may be met with, from the sample of the single man living 
with a single wife, to that of the group of relatives married 
to a group of wives. We begin to see also why tribes 
following polyandrous habits, endeavour to prevent further 
complications by making widows ' remain in the family.' 

All the children of these very promiscuous unions are held 
to be brothers and sisters. And as, as is manifest, a genera- 
tion or two of such marriages must produce inextricable con- 
fusion in relationships, so we find that the Todas, who like 
nothing so much as reducing things to simple formuliE, rather 
ignore the whole subject, terming them anatama.* They will 



* See Note 19 of Chapter VII. 



314 



POLYANDRY— MARRIAGE. 



describe the connection between such brothers as follows : 
■ ' Their fathers are brothers-in-law : their mothers being sisters, 
they are brothers.' An uncle is styled ' my little father " ; 
most significant. 

The marriage system I have described is elastic. It is 
capable of being modified in its internal working without 
change in the actual principle. Thus, when women are scarce, 
several men have to be content with one wife between them. 
But as women become more numerous, a greater proportion 
of men are able to procure a wife a-piece. This condition 
of permanent routine is supremely satisfying to the Toda 
mind. 

The general expression for marriage is represented by the 
word kfldiken — I join.' Thus, ' Beliani is married to 
Nastufi ' would be translated Beliani Nastufig kOdthchi, or 
they are joined to one another. But in addressing a man 
with the casual question of, ' Are you married ? ' the ordinary 
way of putting it, would be to say, ' Is there a son I ' — Mokh 
vathchya .' He would reply, Ha, mokh vathchi, 'Yes, there 
is a son : ' or if married, but childless, he would detail, 
An kukh kOdthbini, mokh illade — ' I joined a woman, a son is 



Similarly, the enquiry made of a woman would be, Belthta 
gavthchya ? — ' Is the neck-ring tied .' ' * 

Mr. Metz has been so good as to describe for me a singular 
custom connected with weddings, which he learnt subse- 
quently to my having left the Nilagiris: of which no sort of 
explanation can be supplied by the Todas. 

When the wife has gone seven months with her first child, 
she retires with her husband alone, to the depths of the 
village wood, where at the foot of some tree she places a 

' I am not certain that in the word 'join,' we have got the- most primi- 
tive meaning of kfidiken. The Hindustani word kOdna, and its Sanskrit 
root kurdd=jl/iy. might be compared. 

' For the modes in which husbands and wives address one another, 

e Chapter VII. 



POLYANDRY— MARRIAGE. 2 1 5 

lamp. Kneeling before the light, she receives from her chap. 

husband a bow and arrow, made by him,^ which she salutes • ,— 1- 

by lowering her forehead to them. Taking up the weapons, 
she asks, ' What is the name of your bow ? ' — each clan appa- 
rently having a different name for its bow. He tells her the 
name, Kurkutvashk or Virzhvashk, or any other. Question 
and answer are repeated three times. The wife then deposits 
the bow and arrow at the foot of the tree. The pair remain 
at the spot without shelter but that of the tree overhead, all 
night, eating a meal that evening, and another in the morning, 
before return to the village. 

This looks very much like the perpetuation of a custom 
inherited from some past condition of life, when Todas 
carried weapons. But its object, and the reason for post- 
poning the ceremony for some months after marriage, is not 
easy to comprehend. Perhaps, in a communistic era, possibly 
antecedent to polyandry — see Chapter XXVII. — it may have 
implied an acknowledgment of paternity, and of the obligation 
on the part of the father, to provide food for the coming 
family. 

' It will be remembered that the weapons used at funerals are made by 
the Kotas. 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY. 



CHAPTER XXVr. 



POLYANDRY — MORALITY. 



Fickleness moI necessarily an attribute of Barbarous Man— Use of Ul 
Diraier — Dowry sometimes itotpaid^Whai tAenf — t-yomen's luftueme, 
— Divorces are rare — Company behaviour very fair — No bachelors — 
Ultra Contmunistic — Not much knovin of Private Practices — No 
Foreign Bloed apparent. 

CHAP. These people have been described by travellers, as grossly 
■_— ., — 1.- inconstant in their married hfe ; men and women leaving and 
even exchanging wives or husbands in fickleness, much as the 
whim seizes them. 

Indeed it appears a common opinion that fickleness is, in 
remarkable degree, the attribute of barbarous man. He h 
either expected to display the inconstancy of an amoroi 
people, full of fire and wild savage license : or perhap; 
softer, childlike instability of a race of Arcadian simpUcii 
and romantic habit : but fickleness in some form or other, 
the notable peculiarity of his primitive institutions. On the 
contrary ; whatever may be his moral condition, behold a 
singularly calm, collected and unimaginative body, acting 
invariably with a dry practical object 

Let us examine then, the condition of one of the 
steps towards organisation, which society ozves to the intr^ 
duclion of polyandry : and if in this early stage we still find 
much that appears immoral, let us discriminate between the 
lapse from a higher standard, and that which is merely a very 
slow rate of upward progress. Secluded and isolated from 
fellow man, there seems no reason why the Toda should not 



I 



POLYANDRY-MORALITY. 217 

remain unchanged in habits, almost through all time : but in 
Uie presence of a superior civilisation, action may be observed • 
to commence ; habits improve, though perhaps only up to a 
certain low stage, almost insensibly, and much as a flower 
expands, chemically influenced in the light of the sun. 

The combined institutions of the dower and inheritance, 
afford as strong guarantees for the stable nature of the 
marriage tie as any race of inferior moral culture could well 
give. Indeed, no social customs redound more to their credit 
for practical sagacity than these. The young man makes his 
offer of marriage, which being accepted, the bargain, so far as 
he is concerned, is closed, and his dowry is held to be due. 
The girl, after sufficient deliberation, accepts this man ; when 
the father is liable for her portion, to the man who has now 
become her husband. 

Women, as we have seen, not being able to inherit pro- 
perty, the husband and father of the family is alone respon- 
sible for the food supply. 

If then at any time the wife should be discarded, the whole 
of her family would be interested in the question of ' who is 
to feed her,' and thus naturally as it were, become guardians 
of the law. Or if, on the other hand, the wife should leave 
her husband's protection, he would claim from her father, 
restitution of the dowry he had paid. Had it been their 
custom that women could inherit property, men might wash 
their hands of the duty of supporting wife and family, and 
women would have encouragement to separate from their 
husbands, taking their children with them. Of course, such 
simple traps for restraining the sexes, could never hold, 
except in conditions of much honesty and good faith. A child 
left to starve, or a woman to beg or earn a separate livelihood, 
are sights absolutely unknown in such a united community. 

Instances have occurred, but are acknowledged to be rare ; 
of the bridegroom not having found the means of fulfilling 
his part of the compact ; not having paid the dowry, even by 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY. 



1 CHAP, the time a child had been bom of his marriage. Had this 
been a hard-working people, such a difficulty could have been 



4 

r 
e 



surmounted by his acting as Jacob did for Rachel, whose 
proposition, accepted by Laban, was ' I will serve thee for 
seven years ' for her. — Genesis xxix,, i8. Butno circumstance | 
has yet induced the dolichocephalic Toda to labour. 

In such a case as has been described, the marriage is simply^ 
cancelled, both parties being competent to many again. But.f 
mark the decision as regards the child ; whether son or 
daughter it remains the property of the father. The mother 
nurses and cares for it during infancy : but when it can take 
care of itself ; when in fact it requires food from the family 
stock, it goes to its father's home. Here we recc^ise t 
influence of the property law. Some one must feed ; 
clothe the child : but women have no property ; hence the 
father must take charge of it. Such would be the judgment 
of the kfltacaram. 

As regards the national feeling on such an affair ; it would 
be looked on as a mishap, an unfortunate occurrence, and the 
defaulter would lose in public estimation. He might be fined 
a buffalo or two : but there the matter would end, in sedate I 
quiet. The child born of the union would not suffer in any J 
way ; it is the son of so and so : there is the father, whose | 
heir he is, and that, his mother. 

If the Toda mode of inheriting property should give the I 
impression that women are not of much account in thel 
family, such a view would be quite incorrect Woman's | 
influence in the mand, through her husbands and children, 
real. By the great tolerance and moderation of the men, 
aided by a very sufficient mental power and mastery of her ' 
subject, she maintains a good position in the house. It is not 
so much that the two sexes are equally balanced, for even if 
of like mental power, the muscular ability to enforce a 
requirement must always remain with the man, as that the ■ 
women have settled into a position which gives ample scope j 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY, , 

' for the practice of feminine duties, and of acquiring useful CHAP. 

experience in the management of affairs. If the husbands , — '" 

should die, the widow would be fuily competent to act as 
trustee of any cattle they may have left, and as guardian of 
her children, whether she married again, or maintained her 
single state. 

In the event of a woman not bearing any children to her 
husband, he may marry again : but in such case he must 
support the first uife : and, as a matter of course, he has to 

ft pay another dower for the second. 

r In possession, therefore, of these evidences of wedded life, 
and bearing in recollection the staid nature of this singular 
people, 1 feel convinced that separation between pairs is not 
lightly tolerated. Easy-tempered, thoroughly communistic, 
and not very nice in their discrimination of the duties of 
husbands and wives to one another, many of the causes which 
lead to separations amongst civilised people, must be absent 
from them, and motives for divorce would not be frequent 

What an insight does the simple practice of the dower, not 
give into the direct nature of their minds! Both parties 
promise, and the promise is their bond I It is not that it is 
a conscientious people, but so guileless and free from talent 
for plot, and all so much alike, that seemingly they possess 
almost intuitive knowledge of one another's intentions. We 
notice the same peculiarity amongst the inferior animals, and 
for want of a better word, term it instinct. I have often thought 
that much of this instantaneous understanding we observe 
in animals, as well as the rapidity with which, amongst nearly 
pure races of man, information is disseminated, and the unity 
of impulse with which they work in combining for a common 
end, is due greatly to close similarity in cranial contour.' 
Are sly animals ever found associated in herds or troops ? 

' This peculiarity was a remarkable feature in the Indian Mutiny of 
the year 1857 ; the rebellion of a semi-barbarous race, of striking uni- 
formily of cranial development. 



220 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY. 



I confess to a feeling of great astonishment that barbarian 
- should conduct their household arrangements with the stai 
ness and good sense of members of the Teutonic fan 
nations. Yet, though free from taint of fickleness. To* 
social morality can scarcely be defended. We find '. 
bound down to keep the peace, and behave himself a 
Toda should, and not throw his wife and children on 1 
parish. But for the rest we find him still a gross savage. 

In the outward behaviour of the sexes, I have been amus< 
to notice how much the custom and etiquette observed i 
civilised life is derived from f^eir model. I have never f 
any among our list of the proprieties in the slightest ( 
overstepped by them in ordinary daily intercourse, ( 
perhaps in their habit of calling a spade a spade. Mode 
looking women are by no means rare. They remain habitualli 
at home, keeping together as demure as cats. They 1 
their own places of private resort, on which members of t 
opposite sex would not presume to intrude. They manaj 
their cumbersome garments to perfection. But it must i 
be supposed that they are moral, or have scruples. It i 
human animal in its wild state. 

No unmarried class exists, to disturb society with its low 
and broils. More's the pity 1 for that same society i 
needs to be startled into energy out of its hum-drum 
The warm breath of poetry and romance never passes throuj 
these people. It must long ago have been quenched with t 
introduction of infanticide and polyandr>'. Defects lie entird 
the other way ; it is a ' very much married ' people. Evei 
man ahd every woman, every lad and every girl is i 
body's husband or wife ; tied at the earliest possible age, a 
bound by grinding social law, in the bonds of unpi 
matrimony, extending almost over the entire term of i 
life. Sacred characters, such as the p^ial and pilkarp; 
merely husbands off duty. With the exception of a c 
girl, and of those v/omen who, past the child-bearing i 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY. 



I were widows, I did not meet with a single instance o( unmar- 
ried adult females. But, on the contrary, I have been able - 
to record several examples of maids wedded in childhood, 
either to boys or to young men ; and in one instance of a 
young woman of seventeen married to a boy of fourteen 
years. — See Table No. 9. 

Although there ar^ degrees of kinship, within whose limits 
the union of the sexes is held in actual abhorrence, yet half- 
brothers and sisters are not included amongst the objection- 
ables. I judge from the internal evidence afforded by their 
mode of life ; the size and crowded condition of their tiny 
houses: their natural dispositions, so gregarious and unac- 
quisitive as to be uncontrolled by such moral doubts as a 
sense of personal property outraged, would prompt : the dis- 
proportion of the sexes : unlimited opportunity. These 
points conspire to convince with irresistible force, that here 
communism is in fullest operation. 

Very possibly, some etiquette may be in force among them 
to place a certain bar on their private practices. But I have 
not had opportunity to ascertain absolutely the form and 
outline of their private domestic habits. My belief is — and 
in this respect Mr. Metz is in full accord with me^that every 
disgusting habit, which might be expected in such a state of 
life, is the common practice among them, but unaccompanied 
by much sense of impropriety. 

The almost entire absence of evidence of foreign blood in 
their veins, is worthy of note, even if a reason may not 
be ascribed with any degree of confidence, to the phenomenon. 
Surrounded by tribes, varying much in appearance from the 
Todas, and from one another, and for many years in close 
proximity to an English settlement ; yet not one single 
Europeanised countenance has been met amongst them, nor 
could I point with certainty to any faces bearing the stamp 
of a foreign native tribe. 



222 



POLYANDRY— MORALITY. 



CHAP. 
XXVL 



Table No. IX. 

Child Marriages. Compiled from * Statistics of Toda Families! 

Table No. IV. 



Naoothe 
List 


CalcttlatAd Ages wlien 


Preaeat Ages of 




Wives 
Married 


Oldest 

Husbands 

married 


Wives 

commenced 
child-bearing 


Wives 


Oldest 
Husbands 


I 

2 

20 

24 
38 

39 

41 

44 

47 
48 

51 
55 


14 

>3 

17 

13 
12 

10 

12 

II 

10 

9 

14 
10 


15 . 
16 

14 
21 

15 

19 
12 

31 
II 

12 
16 


>5 
14 

»7 
13 

12 

16 
»9 


19 

14 
14 

II 
12 


16 

23 
14 

12 
15 


Not with diild 

Not with child 
Ditto 

Not with chad 
Ditto 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

POLYANDRY — ITS CAUSE. 

Causes ascribed by various Authors — Savage social Custom traced— 
Origin of the Family — Absolute and Limited Commumsm^In/anticide 
— Unpremeditated origin of Polyandry — Phrenological description of 
Polyandrists — Obstacles to Change of custom — Nature may be Warped 
so as to place obstacles to Rapid Change in the Character of Races. 

Many are the reasons to which this peculiar form in the CHAP. 
union of the sexes has been ascribed. 

Mr. Talboys-Wheeler inclines to the opinion that the 
custom might, amongst some races of the Aryas, have 
originally been induced "at some primeval epoch,' in the 
course of migrations 'from their cradle in Central Asia, to 
seek new homes to the eastward of the Indus, and under such 
circumstances they would naturally bring with them as few 
women as possible.'' 

Some authors entertain the impression that whatever may 
have actually developed the practice, as an established insti- 
tution it commends itself to the suffrages of women through 
the influence which an enhanced value confers on them. 
One writer even going so far as to suggest that women are 
induced to perpetuate their custom of infanticide for the 
purpose of maintaining this influence. Others ^ain, amongst 
whom are Dr. Inman,' and Mr. Talboys-Wheeler, attribute its 
perpetuation to the necessity for ' keeping the population 
low' by 'preventing any undue increase in the numbers of a 
family.' 

' Talboys-Wheeler, ' History of India.' 

* Inman, 'Ancient Faiths embodied in Ancient Names.' 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



Sir John Lubbock is 'disposed to regard it as an exccp- 
■ tional phenomenon, arising from the paucity of females.'' 
In which opinion he is supported by Mr, Bonwick, who sees 
that ' in a condition of society where women are in th« 
minority, as with the rapidly dying tribes of Australia, a 
system very Hke Indian polyandry is begotten.' ' 

None of these authors appearing quite to have traced th< 
practice to its absolute origin : but rather to have assigned il 
to what is, at best, probably one of its proximate cause! 
only, the few following pages are devoted to the endeavour t( 
throw some further light on this somewhat obscure and verj 
ancient custom. 

It is not assuming too much, from our acquaintance witb 
the working of nature's laws, that the numerical proportioiu 
of the sexes should be one of approximate equality. The 
census taken of alt civilised countries, most carefully and of) 
repeated, assures us that nearly the same number of femalei 
are born in thetn as males : that nearly an equal portiaa 
die, though from different causes — women's feminine trUIa 
tending to compensate the risks to which men are exposed — 
and tliat the balance remains on the whole, nearly the same, 
in spite of many disturbing effects. Thus we grow convinced, 
that if the correlation between the sexes should grow to what 
we perforce view as abnormal, certain unusual — probablj 
unnatural— influences must have been working to disturb th« 
symmetry of their relations. 

We are also agreed that the passion between the sexes, has 
in all ages, and under every diversity of circumstance, appeared 
to be nearly identical in the human race. 

How then, in the presence of this natural equality and 
uniform sensibility of the sexes, with the positive informatioa 
recorded in the last chapter, that every Toda womaO 

* Lubbock, ' The Origin of Civilisation and Primitive Condition of 

* Bonwick, ' Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians.' 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



22S 



the proportion, that only one wife was available for several .. 
husbands ? 

Let us endeavour briefly to trace the growth of savage 
customs, from their primeval state up to the period during 
which polyandry, first was introduced, then became the con- 
cretion we now find it* I believe the practice of communism, 
in its most unrestricted and therefore grossest form, to have 
been the basis of man's social system, when in the natural or 
absolutely undeveloped stage of his savage existence, I ground 
this conviction greatly on the experiences which have been 
gained of the very promiscuous customs of the Todas, as well 
as of primitive races all over the world ; and largely, as a fair 
logical deduction, that I draw from a consideration of the Toda 
cranium ; in which it is almost impossible to be othenvise 
than struck with the overwhelming preponderance of the entire 
domestic group of oi^ans, over the moral, secretive, and 
acquisitive constitution ; thus forming a combination of forces, 
which, in races living densely secluded lives, and at a period 
when the sexes were reared in equal numbers, must have 
produced an irrepressible desire to maintain everything— 
without reserve or restriction, coyness, or prudery — absolutely 
in common among the associated group, call it clan, kinsfolk, 
or tribe ; terms which amongst these densely gregarious people, 
are nearly synonymous. 

At some advanced period in human prepress ; when clans 
had increased in size, and circumstances had encouraged the 
creation of varieties in tribal custom : when the growth of 
local interests, and an active sense of mutual dependence, 
fostered and promoted by the warm preference which the 



' I beg here to acknowledge the pleasure and advantage I have derived 
from the study of Mr, M'Len nan's work ' Primitive Marriage' ; many of 
the ideas in which, on the primitive condition of man, believing them to 
be strikingly accurate, I have incorporated in various parts of this work, 
and especially in this chapter. 

Q 



236 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



CHAP, sexes feel instinctively towards one another : coupled with 
xxyir. Qj^ absorbing need of offspring, that I have already noticed 
—see Chapter XXIV. — as characterising the Todas, had 
united in centripetal action ; 'then barbarian life would become 
a certain degree less promiscuous; by its primitive society 
converging into numerous congeries of near relations. The 
family would then be the social unit ; maintaining still the 
ancient practice, of holding all property in common amongst 
its members. 

By the continued action of such causes, the little family 
groups of kinsfolk would tend to still further condensation 
and exclusiveness. They would become smaller in their com- 
ponent numbers, by being more free of aliens : until at last, 
the family came to be represented vtainly by a knot cf 
brotlurs, half-brotltcrs, and cousins^ married to closely-related 
kinswomen in nearly equal numbers ; the men being the 
common fathers of all the progeny : each woman, however, 
the mother of her own children only. That these women 
were not only intimately connected to one another, but were 
often either sisters or half-sisters to their husbands, need 
occasion no surprise. I have most unfortunately not obtained 
the evidence which would warrant my asserting absolutely 
that such close inter-marriage was actually the custom amongst 
the Todas : yet when once we thoroughly realise the mode of 
daily life of a rude people, we can no longer doubt that such 
u-as.and still is the practice of barbarous races.' 

« 'My little-father's son is the same as my brother.' Toda saying. 
See Chapter VII. -' 

' Supposing three brothers ABC married three women a6 eia thB 
indiscriminate fashion of the times — anterior to infanticide — and that six 
boys, or girls, were borne by each woman, of which two are fathered to 
each husband. 
If the children of the unions be represented as multiples of ABCwithffic, 
the sons of a may be written anA, auD, 3rtC 
S „ 2 /' A, 2 * B, 2 * C 

„ c „ 2 cA,2 e B,2 eC 

Then each of the pairs of sons would be brothers to one another, and A A^ 



POLYANnEY— TTS CAUSE. 



iiy 



Wc know by a perusal of Genesis xx. that Abram married ClIAF. 
his half-sister, and may presume that such was a common — 
practice in his day, 

Mr. Talboys-Wheeler remarks that the earlier Buddhist 
It^cnds preserved in the Mahawansi, present a curious in- 
stance of promiscuous marriage amongst the primitive Aryas. 
Four brothers retire into the jungle with their five sisters, 
where they dwell in huts made of branches of trees, subsist- 
ing on the produce of the chase ; each brother marrying one 
of his sisters not bom of the same mother,' 

Probably every race of man, at some period of its rise 
from the animal condition of absolute communism in which it 
originally revelled, has attained this stage, of limited com- 
munism. Gross as such condition of society may appear 
to be, it must still be acknowledged as an advance on 
the course to orderly wedlock. No form of sexual alliance 
is inconsistent with the theory that from this platform all the 
various systems of matrimony with which we are acquainted, 
have sprung and radiated : whilst, on the other hand, we have 
in the living customs of barbarous races in all quarters, 
evidence in its favour. 

One of the early results of this limited form of communism, 
would be shown in the growth of a sense of parentage ; arising 
from the recognition and acknowledgment of their children 
by their joint fathers : and in the desire which they would 
feci, to protect and provide for this family, expanding into a 
certain rude conception of the responsibility of their position. 

The known habits and sentiments now prevailing among 
the Todas have encouraged me in forming my impression of 
the characteristic conditions of primitive society. It seems 
necessary too that some such concretion of the social system 

b k,c h, &c., would be half-brothers by the same father: a A, a D, n C, 
&c, would be half-brothers by the same mother :aA,6 B,c C, &c., woulj 
be cousins gcmuui. 
' Talboys-Wheeler, ' History of India,', voL 1. p. 117, foot note, 



228 POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 

CHAP, shall have been already formed, before we can fully account 

. — , - for systematic infanticide — as contrasted with a habit of 

indiscriminate and disorderly destruction of the weak of both 
sexes— or before we can completely understand why poiyan- 
dry should emanate therefrom. TAese practices seem to imply 
the pre-existence of a family scheme of some sort. 

Circumstances, such as I endeavoured in Chapter XXIII. to 
depict, drove a communistic people, to mfanticide. Parents 
projected the scheme of destruction which eventuated in an 
undue proportion being maintained between the sexes. The 
early and undesigned consequence of the act being, that 
without actual change in social practice, the limited commu- 
nism changed into what is styled polyandry, by a simple and 
natural process ; for whereas it had been the custom for 
groups of brothers, half-brothers, and cousins, to unite them- 
selves to nearly equal numbers of kinswomen, they now 
were restricted to the reduced allowance of one or two wives 
between them, 

The balance of feeling, which must long have vibrated 
between the desire, the furore, on one side of the scale, to 
destroy every one of the unprofitable female sex, and on the 
other to retain women for female duties, would at last have 
created an equilibrium resting at that point where the smallest 
number of girls, necessary for the continuation of the species, 
was permitted to live. That the limit was one wife for a family 
of nearly-related men, shows probably, that even in those 
dark sad times, property had its interests to be attended to. 

Many a tribe may, from too rash destruction of females, 
have promoted its own rapid extinction, by enfeebling its 
elastic power, or the capacity for overcoming such temporary 
reduction of its numbers, as might be induced by wars, famine, 
or disease. But eventually, supply and demand in the sur- 
viving tribes, balanced. 

It is curious to observe, and worthy of note, that the tendef 
feelings of parents should induce them, 'despite the -fore* of 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



229 



fadition, to retain, in some instances, more than one 
■ daughter in a family ; thus forming a small reserve of women, . 
with which the vacancies which would arise in other families, 
from a deficiency in female births, or from girls not having 
been raised to years of maturity, find a counterpoise. 

The exceptional practice of polyandry, which had, in an 
unpremeditated manner, thus grown, merely from the infanti- 
cide which had disturbed the natural proportion of the sexes, 
might be expected to retain something of the promiscuous 
ways, which for ages had been so much in consonance with 
gregarious and primitive tastes. Now that the custom of 
infanticide has been relinquished, and the discrepancy between 
the sexes, which was its immediate fruit, has become less 
remarkable — though very far from having vanished^ — I observe 
communism still remaining de facto, the loved habit of the 
people, whilst mont^amy grows to be the national form of 
marriage. It may be that the Todas in this process of 
change, are merely reverting to an ancient usage — that prior 
to infanticide — instigated by the natural predilections of 
unaltered dispositions. Perhaps their habits are becoming 
modified by the influence of surrounding monogamic races. 

I very much doubt if the custom of polyandry, taken in the 
ordinary acceptation of that word, viz., the union of brothers 
only, to one wife, can anywhere be found as the sole national 
form of marriage ; thus assuming the airs of a respectable, 
even if eccentric custom ; for, bearing in mind the extreme 
gregariousness of their dispositions, and intimacy of their 
lives : considering, also, the absolute necessity for every soul 
to marry, it is evident that the actual nature of the tie must 
very greatly depend on the living ratio of the sexes ; which, 
of course, could not be maintained at one undeviating level. 
When the proportions balance, the savage prefers a promis- 
cuous style ; but as they widen, and the males preponderate, 
the practice of monogamy is seen, coexistent with that of a 
polyandry in which the husbands are so-called brothers. 



230 



POLYANDRY-ITS CAUSE. 



I CHAP. . Whether polyandry was the anticipated effect of a prea 
'-, — '■' certed design, in which infanticide was the logical prelimini 
step, or whether this peculiar relation of the sexes was ■] 
unforeseen consequence ; it still could not have continued in 
force amongst a people, unless it were in unison with many 
of their inherent feelings. The same, or parallel personal 
qualities or propensities, must have led to the perpetuation of 
both these eccentric customs, or one of them must have 
fallen into disrepute. And the discontinuance of infanticide 
must have eventuated in the abandonment of polyandry, in 
consequence of the intimate nature of the alliance existing 
between them. 

Now if the Todas had been an exact contrast of what we 
Ivuow them to be ; had they been a people possessing a stror^ 
sense of personal property, and of dislike to publicity: had 
they been warlike and quarrelsome : had they, in fact, 
possessed large Acquisitiveness, Sccrctivencss, Dcstructivc- 
ness, and Combativeness — had they been brachycephalic, in 
fact — and withal been amorous, we could readily have imagined 
their taking to a polygamous style : but it would be contrary 
to our actual experience of men, to suppose that with such 
energetic personalities, families could have continued in 
harmony where one woman was the common wife of many 
men, 

I maintain therefore, that whilst a general deficiency in 
power of the propensities — and conspicuously so of the 
acquisitive organs-dictated the indolent measure of infanti- 
cide, in the very face of the counter action of large Philopro- 
genitiveness, as the best means of escaping annihilation, I am 
equally forced to the conviction, that the tameness of the 
same group of deficient organs, combined with the moderate 
expression of an amativeness not above the average, enabled 
polyandry to maintain its position when once established. 

I have no means of ascertaining that the organs, upon 
' whose sizes and combinations have depended the allied and 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



33< 



inseparable practices of infanticide and polyandry, actually 
existed in the iiuman crania, in the era within which these • 
ancient institutions were introduced as panacea for the woes 
of suffering man. But I affirm that they do constitute the 
association that would in this day invent, as wel! as maintain, 
those two practices, if precisely the same necessities arose. 

If'this theory of the physiologic origin of these venerable 
institutions be correct, we have an evidence of the great im- 
mutability of those races which, keeping their genealogical 
purity of blood, remain also in the same unchanging circum- 
stances of solitude and climate. 

In due time ; after the lapse of generations, the polyandry 
which had then concreted into definite form, could not easily 
have been disturbed, even if the desire to reform had been 
felt with force sufficient to secure unanimity. 

Let us imagine ourselves exactly in their position ; the insti- 
tution of infanticide completely established. Fourteen years 
— or the marriageable age of girls — must have elapsed before 
any member could reap benefit from the joint movement. But 
fourteen years is a very long period, and its end so distant, 
that few of those whose voices had weight in council, would 
live to see the change effected. On the other hand, the 
existing state of polyandry, so far from being oppressive, has 
strong points of recommendation to such minds. The men 
probably recognise the fact that it limits the number of 
mouths to be filled. Nor is it unpleasant to the females ; 
their duties are light— for women of barbarous races, ex- 
tremely light — they are treated with consideration, and have 
marked influence in the home circle. Again, parents know 
that their surviving daughters are in great request : they 
marry off readily, and at small cost. The thorn in their rose, 
is the necessity for destroying their infants. This is, no 
doubt, a lasting pain to them. 

Hence wc find that before the movement can even be com- 
menced, there is a vis incrtits to be overcome, which would of 



232 



POLYANDRY— ITS CAUSE. 



itself render it an extremely difficult matter for the people i 
effect a change in their habits, in respect to their marriage 
system. Moreover, as I have shown in Chapter XI., the 
unfortunate practice of infanticide leads ultimately to the 
constitutional physiologic change, in which a surplus in actual 
dirt/is is maintained in boys over girls, amongst tribes with 
whom it has become naturalised. Hence, as we see, iAg 
excess of males over fctrtaies, bred of infanticide, tends to 
preserve the system of polyandry, wften infanticide itself has 
ceased to be a national practice. 

I may now affirm the dogma, that where the destruction of 
female infants is practised to excess, we must find, either that 
polyandry, or the practice of procuring wives from other 
races, tribes, or castes, is the custom. And where polyandry 
is met with, we may be confident that we either find female 
infanticide, or that it has lately and largely been practised. 

It is on the conviction of the truth of this assertion, that I 
based the statement made in Chapter XXIII., that our 
British forefathers, who are known to have been polyandrous, 
were also infanticidal. 

It has often been laid to the discredit of wild races; the 
apparently insuperable difficulties that oppose themselves to 
efforts made for their elevation from the obscene rut in which 
they were found, and in which they had lived for untold ages, 
I think the experience we have gained of the unsuspected 
existence of what would ordinarily be termed a ' natural ' 
obstacle to change in Toda marriage custom, should lead 
us to suspect the possibility of nature being often warped by 
the long continuance of other bad practices, so as to place 
equally effective and invisible obstacles to sudden oi 
rapid progress in the mental or moral culture of races. 



.SHADES OF EVENING. ^33 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

SHADES OF EVENING. 

The people assemble — The cattle come home — Days food — Prayer to 
the Setting Sun — The family retires to rest — Maternal aspect of Nature 
in Mild Climates. 

• 

The long day draws to a close. The party who had gone cHAP. 
out in the mommg to collect k(idu, have returned from the ^^y^^^' 
distant Badaga villages, apparently not very successful ; for 
they grumble, and look suspicious and uneasy, as they throw 
their bundles on the ground. The women at home have long 
completed the performance of their women's work ; the infants 
have been suckled over and over again, and passed from arm 
to arm of the girls of the family : the house floor and bed 
have been plastered, and the village frontage swept down 
water is in the vessels, and wood is in the slings. There is 
nothing now to do but curl their hair for the night, whilst 
gossiping with the visitors. 

Gradually, and as the evening approaches, the people grow 
restless and absent-minded : stand up to look, and with hand 
to eyebrow, scan the broad pasture lands lying under the setting 
sun. Something of importance seems to be looked for. Ru- 
mour spreads, that the buffalos are coming in. The dense mass 
may now be seen approaching, slowly and leisurely — as well- 
fed animals should — and led by the more pressing milch cows, 
who filing through the intervening swamp, and with ears 
pricked forward, rise the hill where the familiar homestead lies 
nestled. Here the herd stops : a few, for reasons of their own, 



234 



SHADES or EVEmNG. 



saunter into the fold : the rest chew the cud in an indolent 
group outside. 

The people sit about watching. And whilst some lads 
stand round the herd, to quiet the nervous with their voices, 
and to stop flirtations with their sticks, lest any disturbed cow 
should withhold a portion of her milk ; the naked palkarpil 
with honnus in hand, and pushing forward the mope-eyed 
sucking-calves, cases each mother in turn, of her oppressive 
load. Over all, the ripe glow of the declining sun ; hallowing 
the innocent domestic scene which his rich beams have just 
ceased from glorifying. 

Faces cheer up as the man returns to his dairy : and talking 
is resumed. We understand now their late anxiety and their 
present ease ; the evening's supply of food has hem assured to 
them. 

Shortly, the mistress of the house may be observed through 
the little door of her cabin, squatted on the hearth inside; 
deftly feeding the fire in the vorshkall, stick by stick, as she 
cooks the evening meal : head thrown hack, eyes half-closed, 
with a hand outspread, warding the heat from her face. Out- 
side, the family sit about or occupy themselves in shutting up 
the calves. 

We note a man leaning against the village wall, mutter , 
' ekarvashk '— sunset. He rests his wand against the stones, 
and taking both arms out of his mantle, maintaining it in place 
with the elbows, leisurely puts feet to the ground. Bending 
slightly, and with joined hands to forehead, he says in a low 
tone, ' Eyan, appn ! danenma, mokh ultama, 51 ultama, fir 
ultama, karr ultama, eilam ultama!" Then readjusting his 
cloth, steps back again to his seat. He quietly watches the 
luminous God as it subsides in oriental glory behind the hill : 
then resuming the sotto voce conversation, enquires after the 
health of the new bom calf, and if the mother has begun 
giving milk. An innocent grave smile plays on his face when 
told that both are doing well. * A good cow!' he remarks, 
slowly nodding. 



SHADES OF EVENING. 235 

Long looked for dinner appears to be ready ; for the CHABtJ 
heated woman now emerges into the open air, and the men ■ 
and boys enter the hut, leaving the females to prolong the 
talk. When each member of the community has in turn, 
eaten, and the offerings to bhumi tai have been swept out of 
doors, the whole family in the village join grouped about in 
primitive dinginess, and quiet unconspicuous attitude ; some 
under the veranda eaves, others on the tflar, or under its 
quiet shelter : and there rehearse the day's events. The 
naked pSlkarpSI also, having completed his separate cooking, 
squats apart upon the wall, whence he can hear the news and 
add his distant note to the conversation. 

And thus the shades of evening close in upon them. The 
air grows chill, and the careful mother of the smallest, rises to 
take the infant she has kept under her dress, into the well 
baked house. She stops a moment : looks round to the sky 
where tlie blushing moon, ascending vertically through the 
trees in hot pursuit of the now vanished sun, illumines her 
womanly face. ' Sw4mi, SwSmi I ' she mutters, with hands to 
forehead, supporting the while, her young one in the bend of 
her arm, ' Mokh ultama, ellam uUama : ' and stoops in at the 
little doorway. Two or three sleepy-headed children soon 
stagger in after her. Note the pretty daughter in her teens, 
plump and white teethed, with hair tightly curled, and eyes 
that brilliantly catch the sparkle of the moon. She has been 
taught to say her prayers : but unmarried and without a care, 
the sense of responsibility is not strong upon her ; she has 
no child to shiver for. She gives a rather hurried salute, 
bringing her head down to her hands, rather than take the 
young arms out of their envelope in the chill : a quick ' Eyan, 
appn!' and in she ducks, shutting the door after her. A 
prolonged rustle may be heard as the brood settle themselves 
in the dark, to rest on the warm hearth ; with a mantle on 
the floor and another covering all their nakedness. The 
healthy baby, with eyes wide open, trying in vain to penetrate 
the gloom, disturbs the mother on the raised bed, who is now 



336 SHADES OF EVENING. 

heard hushing and patting, hushing and patting, hushing a 
- patting. A few nursery skirmishes, and all is still, within. 
' IrzhtSshk ' says a man outside in the dark, yawning, 'it 
is night — bed time.' ' Irzhtashk ' is repeated by these men 
of few words, rising. They separate for their different huts. 
Two to join our family party, stopping before the door, quietly 
makethcirshort address to the moon, asking it' to be gracious, 
and tliat all may be well with thu cattle and with the village 
Again the door shuts. A little more settling : the snatch of 
a song : the low mutter of talk : the cry of the disturbed baby, 
and all again is hushed. 

Irzhtashk, I iterate, and impressed with the lonely and 
exceptional beauty of the position, mount the hill ; to see and 
to think. Not a sound i.s to be heard over the vast expanse, 
save the curious tick ticking of nature at work in the short 
grass. Overhead, the dear moon, now brilliant, pursuing her 
serene course in the transparent ether, 

' this brave o'erhanging firmament, this majestic 
roof fretted with golden fire,' 

illumines hill and dale, close prospect and far distant \ 
miles away down in the plains below : now showing 
rounded outlines of tracts of forest, and the spurs of recet 
hills: now throwing a brilliant dart through the poor mai 
woods close by ; bringing out each stick of the gnarled t 
with the free hand of an accomplished artist, and sheening 
gracefully intd the women's secluded bathing place : then 
resting firmly and fully, but softly, on the roof of his humble 
dwelling in the open patch of hill side — the home, the sanctum 
— and counting his cattle in their pen ; tinting each horn and 
moving shiny back of the living group, the better to see them. 
She traverses all his free domain ; the imdulating pastures 
and the lonely tara : examines the single tree out on the wild, 



' Some savage ra 
the sun goddess j but the Todas a 
what sexes these luminaries belong. 



moon as a god, ever in pursuit of 
very ignorant, and do not know to 



SHADES OF EVENING. 



237 



under whose shelter the lads had sat last day. Such an 
interest she takes in all their haunts ; like the moving spirit 
of a mother visiting her children in their sleep. A pitying 
look as if, though concerned but powerless to help, yet 
knowing their hidden future. 

It is by night, and in such a climate, that nature assumes 
her most perfect expression as mother — bhumi tal—it is then 
that we note man, so like a child asleep in her bosom, throw- 
ing his cares upon her : he and his cattle and all that is most 
necessary, and all that is most dear; seemingly entrusting all 
to her in his hours of rest. All made for man's convenience 
and comfort I she appears to say. I have hushed him thus to 
sicep for ages ! Daily I have lowered my pall of night over 
him, and have made my ' lesser light' so beautiful, he mis- 
takes the work for its Creator ! Here nature scarce acknow- 
ledges these primitives to be her failures. In the care she 
continues to take, she says they are my children, and of such 
all the world was once ! They still need mycara They are 
human, and the germs of what is great ! 

Nature thus softens our feelings, and appeals to our lenient 

sense. You once were such as these ! How forcibly do the 

words of Dante come up to disturb our unjust thoughts : 

A man 

Is born , . , and none is there 

. . . who doth read nor write ; 

And all his inclinations and his acts, 

As far as human reason sees, arc good ; 

And he offendeth not in word or deed : 

But unbapiized he dies, and void of faith. 

Where is the justice that condemns him f Where 

His blame if he believcth not? — What then. 

And who art thou, that on the stool would'st sit 

To judge at distance of a thousand miles 

With the short-sighted vision of a span?' 

ELLAM ULTAMA. 



' Dante, 'Paradiso,' Canto xix., translated by Cary. 



A BRIEF OUTLINE 



OF THE 



GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



TUDA LANGUAGE 



BY THB 

REV. G. U. POPE, D.D., 



PHLLOW OP THB MADRAS UNIVBRSITY, MBMBBR OP THB GBRMAN 

ORIENTAL SOCIBTY. 



[From a collection of Tuda words and sentences presented by the 
Rev, Friedrich MetZy cf the Basel Missionary Society, "] 



NOTICE. 

These outlines are the result of a good deal of personal intercourse with 
the Tudas, during a residence of twelve years on the Nflagiris. With the 
kind assistance of the late lamented J. W. Breeks, Esq., the First Com- 
missioner of the Nflagiris, the subject of the Tuda language was in- 
vestigated a few years ago in connection with a small Archaeological 
Society in Ootacamund. At the request of Colonel Marshall, I have put 
the results into this shape, to be printed in his work on the Tudas. I 
think that the facts of the language are here gathered together. It is be- 
coming daily more difficult to ascertain what is originally Tu^a and what 
is borrowed by that people from the later immigrants. 

In one or two matters, I have ventured to differ from the Rev. Dr. 
Caldwell, whose Drdvi^ian Grammar has invested such researches with 
a new interest I advance my opinions with unfeigned diffidence. While 
agreeing in the main with that profound scholar, I yet think that the 
remarkable analogies between the Keltic and the Drdvi^ian languages 
merit a more thorough investigation* 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



OUTLINES 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 



I. THE ALPHABET. 

§ I. The Tuda language has no compositions, written or CHAP, 
unwritten, not a ballad nor a scrap of anything to indicate in- - — ■ — ^ 
teilectual activity. The Tu^as, like their buffalos, are fine 
animals ; but they are the least cultivated of the Drividian 
races. 

No trace remains of the employment by them of any 
written character ; it is probable, therefore, that they separated 
from the other Drdviijians before the ' ur-sprache ' of those 
tribes was reduced to writing. 



§ 2, This language, of which but a very scanty fragment 
remains in use, has more sounds than any other DrSvidian 
dialect, and some of these are peculiar to it, seeming to have 
been modified by the position and habits of the tribe. 

The Tu^as chiefly converse in the open air, calling to each 
other from one breezy hill-top to another. Their speech 
sounds like Old Kanarese spoken in the teeth of a gale of 
wind. 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 



§ 3. The vowels are : 

1. a, as in 'America.' 

Ex. atham, he. 

2. 1, as in ' pin.' 

Ex. jam, your. 

3. a, as in 'Cook.' 

Ex. nig, within. 

4. e, as in ' hem.' 

Ex. yanak, to me. 

5. 0^ as in ' opinion.' 

Ex. kor, cdd. 



1-0 NG. 

as aw, in 'bawL'j 
Ex. &), a man. 
as in ' pique.' 
Ex. nt, tiou. 
as in ' School.' 
Ex. mfidn, Mr«. 
as a in 'i>ale.' 
Ex. U,wAjit 
as in ' opium.' 
Ex. om, we. 



Some of these are occasionally modified ; thus, 

sounds as in German, or as en in French, in ' fleur.* 

Ex. tSkh, /i!ma/t. 

11, as in German, or as a in French, in ' pur.' 
Ex. UUh,/!'f. 

u, at the end of a word; has a very fine sound, approachinj 
to an L The DrSvi^ian ' half u.' 

a, in the last syllable of a word, sounds like a very short e. 

o and & are almost always interchangeable: thus, thi 
Kanarese kd/ is in Tuda kol- ^^ 

§ 4. The Consonants are : ^^M 



. k, as in ' kalendar.' 


Ex. adkea, /p/ay. 


I. g:, asin 'gun.' 


Ex. avajg, la htr. 


J. k'h, as in ' blockhead.' 


Ex. mokh, a so,i. 


i. g'h, as in ' loghouse.' 


Ex. any final g may be aspi 


S. j, as in 'jam.' 




5. ch, as in 'chin.' 


Ex. cten, /rrf. 


7. t,asin 'ten.' 


Ex- terigi, iigain. 


i. th, as in 'this.' 


Ex. atham, A^. 


). tli,asin 'thin.' 


Ex. mlthkon, / stanii. 


5. d, as in ■ dog.' 


Ex. n&d, wet. 


. f, lingual. 


Ex. muttiken, //«/. 


. 4, lingual. 


Ex- kfi^a. foget/ur. 


, p, as in ' pen.' 


Ex. pni, striie. 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 



14. f, as in ' fuo." 


Ex. pflt an insect. 


15. b, asin 'bulL' 


Ex. bosth, a conical tmpU 


16. V, as in ' very.' 


Ex. ▼&-, amther. 


17. Vh. 


Ex. bhfit, a demoti. 


18. m, as in 'mm' 


Ex. &111, Tuesday. 


19. n,asb'no.' 


Ex. tani, Saturday. 


3o. I, hard, lingual. 


Ex. beHi, Friday. 


31. r, hard, lingual. 


Ex. 4r, six. 


S3. 1. 


Ex. aivom, Sunday. 


>3 -rfL 


Ex. tttjh,>r. 


34- zh. 


Ex. ekh, /n™. 



§ 5. It is difficult to decide whether all these sounds belong 
to the Tu^ itself. The aspirates especially, except kh and 
ch, are, it may be suspected, foreign to it. 

t) 6. Some of them seem to have arisen from the lingual r, 
which is found in all the South-Indian languages, and which 
existed in the oldest forms of the DrSvidian. In Madras it 
is sounded y, and in Tinnevelly L In Telugu it is softened 
into r, or changed into t or d. It is a kind of triple r, sounded 
very far back in the throat, thus seeming to be a mixture of 
r, 1, and 2. 

It resembles the Welsh \L (Comp. § 43.) 

Thus Kan. ilu and Tarn. fim. seveti, make in Tuda elah. 
„ kif „ kir, under „ „ kirzh. 

„ diirjide „ puniti, mud „ „ poizh. 

§ 7. It may be stated as a rule that the Tu^a ih and zli, 
(which are strong Unguals) generally represent a final 1 or | of 
the Kanarese : 

Old Kan. and Tam. pa/ (/«) in Tuda parah. 

„ „ dfi, Sri, circle „ firsh. 

„ „ bii {lu), vU, a bow „ virzh. 

„ „ puii, tiger „ ptlrsL 

§ 8. Sometimes ah is the equivalent for the other Unguals ; 
thus, 

Old Kan. and Tarn, karadi, a .bear, is karslL 



244 TUDA GRAMMAR- 

" CHAP. § g. The letter f is pronounced by tlie Tuijas full and cleiii^ 
'' while any other Drdvidian race would pronounce ' first 'as 
pirsht, the sound of sharp f being unknown to them ; as 
are some other sharp sounds, such as th in thin, and s in 
sin. 

I think the Tuija f sound has arisen, as in English, froo; 
the corruption of a guttural or lingual. 

Etioiigk has become with us enuf. 

So the Tuda p^, ' an insect,' is probably Old Kan. puriu. j 

It must, however, be stated that the words in which fij 
found are precisely those which it is most difficult to t 
Thus, 

miinf is ' nose ' (? Kan. mittt, ' projecring '). 
m&f is a. 'Ba^agan' (7 (Kan.) mdva, 'father-in-law,' (used as a tt 

of respect)d 

or a 'deer' {? mSn). 

§ 10. The lingual d of the Kan, is in Tuda sometimes repr( 
sented by r ; thus, 

nar-k-en, ' I walk.' (Kan. root «a^. 
nSr, ' district' (Kan. nitd). 

§ 1 1. Th (as in t/iin) and ah (lingual) are often euphonies 
(.') inserted in Tuda words. This is quite a Tuda pecuUari^ 

The former sound is not at all DrSvidian (though it ■ 
Keltic) ; and the latter is only found in the other D. dialei 
in Sanskrit derivatives. 

Sh is, however, quite the favourite Tuda sound. 

Thus, nilthten, I stand. (§ z6.) 

K. Nit -t- temp, part \ + inflectionable part en. 

Here th is a mere euphonic insertion. 

Enhken, lam. 
R. er + K. + en. 

Here, too, ih is probably a mere euphonic insertion. 



TUPA GRAMMAR. 



245 



§ 12. In Tuda v or w is optionally pronounced before 
initial; thus, rodd=0'cf ; but in the compound we find oddi-adi= • 
alone (lit. one-step) ; and on or or is the Dr4vii^ian root. So 
in English ' one ' is pronounced ' won.' 

The possession of this sound of w is one of the many note- 
worthy analc^ies between the Keltic languages and the 
DrAvidian. ' 

So y may, as in the other DrSv. dialects, be prefixed to any 
word b^inning with e. Thus, enak or yeiiak=/0 Tne. 

This, too, is found in English, and is probably due to Keltic 
influences : ewe is pronounced yew. 



NOUNS. 

§ 1 3, Tu^a nouns have no inflections for number or gender. 

§ 14. The Nominative, Accusative, Vocative, and Genitive 
cases are alike, being the unaltered root. 

§ 15, The inflectional particles in use arc, (i) for the dative, 
g or k; (2) for the instrumental ablative and the ablative of 
remotion, end (or edd) ; and (3) for the local ablative orth. 

These correspond very exactly to the Old Kanarese, ge, 
inda, and ol (comp. § 43). 

§ 16. The following is a Paradigm of a Tu^a noun 1 

&{, a man 
N. Ace Voc Gen. Sl\, a man 

DaL aig, to or/or a man 

Abl. (instrum. and remotion) a)end (ftjedd), by otfrom a man 
(place) . . . f^orzh, in a man. 

§ 17. Since the nominative, accusative, and genitive cases 
are alike, it is chiefly by position that the syntax of a Tuda 
sentence is regulated. A noun immediately before a transitive 
verb is the object ; while a noun before another noun is in the 
genitive case, or qualifies it like an adjective. 



246 TUpA GRAMMAR. 

In the latter case ad, the root of the epicene pronotH 
3rd person, appears to be sometimes inserted, making ^ 
looks like a genitive case. 

This resembles the Kan. usage. In that language, cert 
nouns add d to the root to form the inflectional base, which ^ 
used for any case. The Tamil adds thu (tit flat)_ to the ; 
to form a genitive. 

§ 18. The Tuda pronouns are irrt^ular, but correspond v 
dosely to those of the other Dr&vi^ian dialects. 



§19. 



THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS, 



(l) The pronoun of the ist person. 
Singular. 
Nom. &n, / 
Ace yen, mc 
Gen. yen ; yen-ado, my, r. 
yen-ak, to or for me 



Abl. 



'■{'":;aW 



Sm, am, we 

yem, &m, us 

yem ; yem-adn, our, 1 

yem-ak, to or for us 
( yem-end, \ , 

lam-end, am-eddJ 



Note,— The original form of the Drividian pronoun of the 1st person 



(t.) In the oldest dialect ofTamil and in Tulu it is j-ifniin Old Kanarese 
in, in Old Telugu finu, in Malayalim nj5n. 

(3.) The inflections of this pronoun in nearly all the cognate languages 
have en j and in the oldest forms y is prefixed at pleasure to all cases be- 
ginning with e. 

(3.) The pronoun when appended to the DrSvidian verb in an, en, ini, 
eni, ^n. 

(4.) In later Tamil Kanarese and Telugu we find fonns nin, nSm, and 
nfinu, in the Nom. Singular ; and nSm, mSmu in the Nom. Plural. This 
M or Ht I do not regard as primitive, since it is wanting in all the old 
forms. The DrSvidian languages prefix « to several words which th^ 
have received from other languages. Thus the Sanskrit jiKpu is in Tamil 
itugam ; aod nangHratn is the form in which the word aitthor has settled 
. down in the Drflvi^ian dialects. I can see how n might have crept m ; 
I cannot imagine its disappearance from every ancient dialect. 

{5.) This is not the place for a full discussion of the subject ; but I 
would compare dn with the very ancient form S. aham. 

Nor can I think it dear that 6m is not related to the Sanskrit »*yam, 
or to the Greek qfit7f or u'fi/jrt, and V^dic aiml. 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 

§ 20, (2) The pronoun of the 2nd person. 

Singular. Plueai- 

Nom. 1 _t 

I voc r- ' ■ ■ 

I Ace 1^ 
, Gen. J 
Dat. nin-ak . 

{nis-end or nin-edd, i^^^ 
ox from thee \ 

nis-orzh, in thee J 



347 



{nin-ak 
niin, nim-ada 
r nim-end, nim^d 
Inim-onli 



This closely resembles the ancient Kanarese and Tamil. 

I do not know whether it is of use to point out the Dr^vi^ian 
root ml, ' stand.' with its past part, in Kan. ninu, as the possible 
origin of this pronoun. 

Here n is, I think, undoubtedly radical. 

§ 21. The pronoun of the 3rd person in Tuja (which is 
really a demonstrative pronoun, or adjective) has the pecu- 
liarity, that like the Latin se, it has no inflection for gender or 
number. 

Thus athatii=/<«, she, it, they. 

[Generally m is an indistinct nasal, the anusw&ra of the Sanskrit^ 
It is declined like k\ (§ 16). 

N. A. G. atham 
Dat athao-g 

... r ath-end, atham-«dd, athamend 

I atham-orzh, ath-orzh. 

The resemblaiKe to S. adas is remarkable. 
Kan. &tanu=:he ; adn=it 

It will be remarked that the verbal forms of the 3rd person 
make no distinction of number or gender. (Comp. § 26.) 

This is a remote demonstrative (ille, &c.) ; itham is used for 
the proximate (hie, &c.). 



248 TUDA GRAMMAR. 

HAP. Besides this oldest form the Tu{}a uses the pronouns 

avail (ille) ; ivaii (hie) 
aval (ilia) ; ival (hrec) 

with their plurals 
avar ; iv&r, which are declined like II, with the addition 

kind of genitive in du: avandu, &c. 

Here avan, &c, are the remote demonstratives, and m 
&c., the proximate demonstratives. 

These appear to be forms recently introduced, or, it may b 
reintroduced into Tu^ from Kanarese or Tamil. 

Avandu^3.va.n + da, and is prefixed to a noun adjecttv< 
and so forms a kind of genitive case: avandu kukh=H 
wife. (§ 17.) 

The use of a and i as demonstrative prefixes is thorougU 
Drividian. 

The root of this pronoun is evidently d 

§ 32. TUPA ADVERBS. 

(i) Words answering to English adverbs exist in Tu^ 
Some of them are also used as nouns, some are parts of ti 
verb. 

(2) The following list includes nearly all that are in ust 

1. ya hi /These seem to be really i 

2. no &ha I jections. 
■ 3. to-,, fte-<, 1. r Here the ,-,«,,, as demonst™ 

where / ' ' ^1 ''" interrogative parddes 1 
L pear. 

4. why gte T. and K. 

5. how yetete Reduplicate of ete. (3.) 
r Atham=t/, hj=-who? 6 an ■ 



. who, what} athario 



terrogative particle. 

^.u^«„ mM,mok [MU-^^-OA-f'^ Mok 

I Sansk.=*5/orif. 

8. bdow kli, erk Kan.kela,imda.Tam.kIr,: 

9. before (place) mnd Dravid. "<&«, mundu. 
b^ore (time) maoh Kan. munche. 



I 





TUpA 


GRAMMAR. 245 


behind 


pinne 


A. Kan. pindf. CHAP< 


outside 


porram 


A- Kan. pora. purram in T. ^^^X^, 


inside 


nig 


Ul, 70ifhi!t, in the dative case. 


muth 


1 


j-A. K. utdarige. In Kan. Tarn. 


more [comp. 


inp&m 


J and TeL uj> or wi is a root 


(2%)=yel 


[iimnpaiii 


] signifying increase. Comp. 


much] . 


1 


L Sansk. upari. 

- This seems to be a comiption of 


near 


kAhnii 


< Kan. iaige o\=i>t hand or ai 
. hand. ' 


far 


bathki 


£adlhe=ncax, in K. 


also, together 


kfida 


Infin. of KO^u, eome ti^aher. 


alotu 




Odd=one. a4i=step, a time. 


frequently 


up&m^ 


Comp. (i3)=more-step. 


soon, suddenly 


bimd 


Kan. biri-biri (§ 34.) 


again 


terigi 


Kan. tirige. 


em>ugh 


ettana 


S In T3imi=thfs much. ^^^H 

I Kan. ittani=the whole. ^^^| 


yet 


in 


Kan. irmu, more, yet ^^^| 


when 


etwan 


^1 


then 


atwau 


>Compaie(3). ^H 


new 


itwan ^^^ 


^H 


forever 


etwan-etwan Lit.=wheD- when. ^^^H 


anolher 


in odd=yet ^^H 



§23- 



TUPA ADJECTIVES. 



(i) There are a few words which appear to be adjectives by 
nature ; but the majority are merely nouns placed before 
other nouns to qualify or limit their meaning. 

(2) The following list contains some of the adjectives 
now in common use. 

ol, olli, ollida, in Kan. thi=^ihu or dtt ot 

di, 
nal in O, Kan., and Tarn., and in the other 

Drav. dialects. 
Kira in Tam., kerr in 

O. Kan. 



I. good -| 
a. pretty} 



L 



250 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 



CHAP. 
XXIX. 



4. h^ 



5. little 

6. hot 

7. cold 

8. wet 

9. dry 



et-ud ^=elevation, in Tamil 

In Kan. ifda=:h2L\mg 
risen 

kin, kir-ud Tarn, fin, firridu, Kan. 

kin, kir 
btnh Kan. disi, bishi, bisilu 

kor Drividian root is >&2^/ 

n&d This is Kan. n&d, ndn, 

ndnd 
vonag K. ona, onagu. In TanL 

una 



ud in HudBXid in 
kirud is evi- 

a 

dently atham 
=it 



10. male 



t^k-an 



II. female tdkh 



12. white 



13. r^// 



fbel-tU 
Ibelp 

{ohen 
b&kh-gndi 
kandati 
kepu 

14. yellow nuyjal 

15. black^blue^kai'MD^ 

green 

16. other v6r 

17. great pemd 



an is the Drdv. masc 
term. 

These words cannot be 
traced to any Dri- 
vi^ianroot diham^ 
body. /<^-^a/isapoet 
word for woman 

j Kan. bef 

Kan. £^^, kudi, kanda, 
kempu 

Tam. manjal 
Kan. /fezr/ 

Kan. ^^^. Tam. p^/v. 



This g or gu 2i 
strengthening 
part in K. and 
T. 

Here seems to be 
an internal mo- 
dification of a 
root to distin- 
guish gender. 



(3) These roots, probably among the oldest in the language, 
are, with hardly an exception, common to all the Dr&vidian 
languages ; but the peculiarities of the Kanarese are found in 
the Tu<Ja. 

§ 24. Forms answering to the comparative and superlative 
degrees are obtained by putting a noun in the ' ablative of 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 25 1 

remotion ' before the adjective ; and by prefixing the adverb CHAP, 
upatn = much. ^ - , ■■ ■ 

Thus : athtuned-kimd, smaller than U 
ftjed-^tndf greater than a man 
up&m-etndf np&mkinid, greatest^ smallest 

§25. THE TUPA VERBS. 

(i) The Tucja verb has I. an affirmative form consisting of 
an indicative mood and an imperative mood ; II. a negative 
form, with the same two moods. 

(2) It has two tenses: I. An indefinite tense, which is 
present or future ; II. A past tense. 

(3) There are fragments of other forms which can only be 
conjecturally restored. 

§ 26. The verb Ho be' is thus inflected. 

Root er. 

I. Affirmative Form. 

' Indicative Mood. 

(I) Indefinite Present 
Singular. 

4. (&n) er-sh-k-en, /am 

2. (nl) er-A-ch-i 

3. (avan) er-sh-cli-i 



Plural. 

(^m) er-eh^-imi 
(nima) er-eh-ch-i 
(avar) er-sh-ch-L 



(II) Indefinite Past. 



Singular. 
I (&n) edd-er-Bh-p-ini, I was 

^ (^) , ) edd-er-Bh-<5h--i 
3 (avan). J 



Plural. 

(dm) edd-er-eh-p-imi 

(nima) 1 edd-er-ah-ch-i 
(avar) J 



This is evidently a compound form obtained by prefixing 
edd to the present tense : edd being for erd. (§ 30.) 

The 1st pers. sing, takes what seems to be an alternative 
form in p-ini : ershpinisershken. 



252 



TUPA GRAMMAR. 



CHAP. 
XXIX. 



■ r 



Sh is the Ta(}a substitute for k : 8hk=kk 
Ch is a softened form of k : so in Saxon, spdtc^speech 

8ceal=sAall, 

Imperative Mood. 

Arn, be thou 
ir-mft, let it be. 

Of this m& I can give no explanation. 

II. Negative Form. 
(I) Indefinite Present : /, 6^r.y am not. 



Singular. 



1. ir-eni 

2. ir^ 

3. ir-adi 



Plural. 



ir-emi 

ir-e 

ir-adi 



(II) Indefinite Past : /, d^r., was not. 

er-th-emi 

er-fh-e 

er-fh-i 



1. er-th-eni 

2. er-fh-e 

3. er-th-adi 



§ 27. The Verb &4, dance^ is thus inflected 

I. Affirmative Form. 

Indicative Mood, 

(I) Indefinite Present : /, &*c,y dance. 



Singular. 

1. ikd-k-en 

2. lt4-oh-i 

3. ^-oh-i 



Plural. 



ikd-k-emi 

ikd-oh4 

lt4-oh-i 



(II) Indefinite Past : I^ 6^r., dancea. 



I. ft^-th-b-ini 

*• \ id-th-ch-i 
3/ ' 



H^-th-b-imi 
It4.fh.0h-i 

Imperatvue Mood. 

pui, strike \ 

pui mft, let him strike 1 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 



II. Negative Form. 
Jndiaaive Mood. 

(I) IndeBnite Present : /, &'c., dance mi. 
SiKGUUK. Plural. 

I. &4-eiu ft^-emi 

3. k4-fl i^4 

3. ^-adi a4 adi 

(II) Indefinite Past : /, iSff., danced ml. 



I. Its' ger-th-em 
z. &ta {ferth-e 
3. &ta g^r-th-adi 



&ta ger-th-emi 
&ta ger-th-e 
&ta ger-th-adj 



Imperative Mood. 
pm afa J 
N.B. Of these, one is Kan. and the other Tamil. 

§ 28. It will be seen from these paradigms that the Tm^a, 
like the other Drividian dialects, has temporal particles, which 
are inserted between the root and the personal terminations. 
In the present tense affirmative the temporal particle is K, 
which is softened into CH (as in Churck), before I. 

In the 1st persons S. and P. a^ or i (it is pronounced both 
ways) is occasionally found. This may have some connexion 
with the temporal particle found in the present, in Old 
Kanarese, which is dap. 

This is almost the only part of the Tu^a language that 
seems to indicate great antiquity. It is, however, Old Kanarese. 

In ordinary Kanarese there is scarcely a trace of the k, 
which being softened into h, or v, has finally disappeared. 

In Tamil it remains in the temporal particle of the present 
Kirru or Girrit ; in a strengthening particle gu added to 
many roots; and in some old poetical forms, such as ^^gu^ 
I will do j qiy-gum, we will do. 



254 TUDA GRAMMAR. 

CHAP. In Malayalim it is still found in the present of many verbs : 

XXIX.. 

^ ^ *^ in the form of kunnu, • 

In the old form Kanarese bi-ku^ ' must/ it is preserved ; as 
also in qd-ku^ * it is enough.' 

In Old Kanarese 6um and £um may be appended to any 
root to form an aorist This admits no variation for number 
or person. Thus avar puidugtim=thcy do. 

In the past the temporal particle is TH (as in thiti). This is 
d in Kanarese. 

The negative mode is obtained by joining the root to the 
personal termination without the intervention of any tem- 
poral particle. This is common to all the Dr&vidian 
languages. 

§ 29. The personal terminations are for the 

Singular. Plural. 

I. Pers. eiiy eni, ini imi, emi 

II. Pers. 1 /, e 

III. !Pers. / /, adi 

These are shortened forms of the pronouns. See §§ 19-21. 

§ 30. There are also in Tuda traces of other verbal fonns 
which are peculiar to the Drdvidian family of languages. 

The relative participle, or adjective form of the verb, is one 
of these. 

In the day when I joined^ is in Tucja : 

&n k&did nftlorzh 

\I joined day-in\ 

Here kMid is in Kanarese kA4idaf and is called a ' relative 
participle,' qualifying day, and being equivalent to when (/) 
Joined, thus including in itself the relative adverb. 

So, ftn &did n&), the day I danced. 

Thus edd is = Kan. idda, ' which was.' (§ 26.) 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 355 

ji. Tu»Ja also forms a verbal noun, a kind of infinitive, 
from verbs ending in a flat consonant by changing the flat ■ 
into its corresponding sharp, as in all the other DrSvi^ian 
languages. 

Thus d^, dance ox play, makes 

&(&) dancing [Tam. aiju, attain ; Kan. 4(Ju, dta, and in Tel. the 
same]. 

The past tense of the negative form is thus : 

&^ ger-(h-eni 

dancing did-{nol)-l. (§ 37.) 

-And here (1) Is not gtr-lk singularly like the Sanskrit krita, done? 
Surely this is the KAR of the Indo-Germanic 'grund- 

(z) May this not throw light on the Tamil temporal particle 
kirra'i and probably on the K. (§ 28.) 

(3) Does it not seem that the negative particle in such forms 
is really dropped ? The emphatic 'dancing- did- 1' remains, 
and the formula of negation has perished. (Comp. Katie's 
Philology of the English Tongue, p. 427.) 

§ 32. In examining the forms of the verb still surviving 
among the Tudas, it becomes evident that many verbal in- 
flections have been dropped. We have, it seems, but the 
debris of an elaborate inflectional system. There was probably 
a future tense with temporal particle v, p, or b. as in Kanarese 
and Tamil. This has disappeared, as in Saxon, and the 
present (like the English indefinite present) is now used as a 
future with an adverb. The forms i^-th-b-ini and er-sh-p-imi 
are probably remnants of it. (§ 27.) 

§ 33. An infinitive mood in a perhaps existed ; for the 
adverb k^Lda is the infinitive of kd^, unless indeed this is a 
word of recent importation. (§ 22.) 

§ 34. The adverb birnd, ' suddenly," seems to be from a 
root which is found in Old Kanarese, 6iri, ' burst,' find in 



256 TUPA GRAMMAR. 

Tamil vifu, ' fall,' from which, in the latter dialect, the 
adv. participle, virundu, is formed. There is, therefiwe, a trace 
of a. past adv. part. (§22.) 



§ 35, There is no passive inflection in Tucja, 



« 



§ 36. The interrt^tive fonns are obtained by adding 
which, as in Tamil and in Old Kanarese, is the chief intent^a- 
tive particle. 

Thus ias B^t&ni joinedl is, BeU&ni kfidthiyg ? ^| 

E and fi are also interrogative letters in Tutja. ^^| 

§ 37. It is not easy to decide whether the Tuda retains any 
trace of a subjunctive mood. 

The following sentence seems to contain something equiva- 
lent to it 

Atham Baatnfl^ k&dl, vali, kakh in odd ft^ &dthohi 

He to Nastufi mi joining (marrying) whfii, (the) woman yet otu 

matt has married. 
If he do not many Nastufi, she will marry another man. 

Here kftdii 's apparently a negative participle quaUfying the 
noun vali=time (Kan. w'/f). 

The forms pok-&di and pok-&rzh are found with the meaning 
of go. Here idi and arzh are joined to the root They seem 
to be the Kan. arS or Tam. ill. But they are probably bor- 
rowed from Tamil. 

The verbal root is the imperative of 2nd pers. sing. ; thus, 
Si^, play thou. Another form adds mS to the root ; thus, 
pui-m^ strike tlwu. 

§ 38. The Tuda has neither prepositions nor conjunctions. 
This want of ' link words ' is an index of the entire absence ol 
the habit of reasoning. 

§ 39- By wsy ^^ illustration, I added a few sentences. 



TUPA GRAMMAR. 

SENTENCES. 

(The words are in the subjoined lists.) 

(i) When I married Beliani I was a widow, 
ftn Beliioig kfidid ntLlorzli ka bamdi. 
/ to-Beii&ni joined in-day I widow. 

(i) Is Nastufi married ? 

Nastoflg belthta ^vthyil 1 
tO'Nasiufi silver tied f 
'be\tiita.=si/ver dodge. (In Kan. belIe=«Aw+ (?) taii= 
marriage tokm.) 
gavthya=^az'i'A+i or yi. 
This seems to be an adv. paii-^/tavifig tied (§ 34), fol- 
lowed by the interrog. (5 36). 

(3) Is BeliSni married ? 

B0)i&ni kukhag kddthya? 
Be/idtii to-a woman joined} 
knkluifr. Here a is inserted to connect knkh with its case 
ending g 

(4) Your wife walks not with my wife. 

Hin katt-vodi-lmkh yen ka^vodi — kiikb nadevadi. 
nade vadi (§ 27). Kan. nsAz-=walk. 
I' is a Euphonic insertion. 

(5) My uncle's sons are my brothers. 

Ten pemden MmdSn mokh yen a^an tamaa 

My great-father Ittt/e-father son my elder-brother younger-brother 
erluabi. 



yen (§ 19) pernd, kirnd (§ as). 

a^an (K. xs^^=idder brother. The R. seem to mean ab<rve.) 

taman (K. Xasi\D.i.-=younger brother). 

en(K. a.fy3.=/ather, priest). 

erihohi ($ 26}. 

The final n, as the termination of masculine nouns, here 
seems to be fairly in the language ; but I suspect it is only an 
obscure nasal, not differing from the epicene ending m in 



258 TOpA GRAMMAR. 

(6) That one's father and this one's father are brothers-in- 
(relatives). 
atham en itbam in b^l 
TAa/ father this father rdateri-man 
atbam, itham {§21) 
be&l (be the root of the ICan. Impersonal verb biiu+^\ (§ 16)). 

It will be seen that the Tudas now use no conjunctions, a 
sign of their degeneracy. 'Link words' of all kinds are 
wanting. In fact, Tuda has scarcely any 'symbolic' words, 
except pronouns, and the smallest possible supply of these. 



(7) Betiani is 


\ married, but has no son. 




Dftjinni kakh k&dtlichi, mokh illade edd _■ 




iUade(Kan, illada=wh, 


not) ^H 




edd 


= h(ivhig l>een {§ 30) 


■ 


The finite verb erihchi is understood. ^| 


§40. 




LISTS OF WORDS. H 
L Verbal Roots. ^| 


I. am.sil 




er 


Dr. rr, un-, u/(San8k.M 






fkftn-tli 
Infid-th 


K. kdft. a 


3. see 




K.nid. H 


3. h^r 




k&l-th 


K. kil ^H 


4. fa/, touch 




mat^ 


K. mun. ■ 


5. toiU 




b&ikav-th 


=see (with the) motub. ^| 


6. smdl 




mittnf k&n th 


=3ee (with the) nose. ^1 


7, driam 




kanas k&nth 


= 1 see a vision. K. Azw, 


8. laugh 




kar th 


K. chiri-chu. 


9. loe^ 




^ 


K. aitt. T. ar"- (S. ofnt.) 


10, sing 




ka-th&d 


—\ play a story. K. kafAt. 
S.kath&. 


II. shout 




A!TT!biihar-th 


= I cry A I U ! K. bioMd. 


ij. talk 




arvorkh 


K. aIaj'&ke=\oquaea.tj(.^^k 


13. dance, play 




H 


K. id. ■ 


14. stand 




nil-th 


■ 


15. walk 




nar 


K. n^. M 


16. run 




vodi 


H 


17. Ikdmmt 




vori 


probably a variatioad^^| 



TUPA GRAMMAR. 



259 



18. give 


taih 


K. tar-u, CHAP. 


19. cUan 


^ 


K. Afdu—to dip ; alasu, to ^ XXIX. 




1 ^^ 

rinse. 


2o. bow, salute 


kombuddi 


K. kumbu+i^M' 


21. ask 


bind er-th 


K. ^^<f. Tam. z^. 


22. strike 


pni 


K, pode. Old Kan. /tf/^. 


23. kill 


k^4igidviti 


K. >^=destruction. O.K. 
^eidu, made. Is t1 a. 
causal inflection ? 


24. <^ 


ktovertt 


( ? Sansk. vrit. Dr. padu. ) 


25. jAkj^ 


Yorikh 


K. orag-u. 


26. ^, ^^M^ 


gei 


0. K. gi, gei. 


27. /a>^ 


va-th, ba-th 


K. halt OTpatt, 


28. Join 


k^d-tb 


K./W//. 

• 


29. /iiri?A 


gav-th 


K. ka(t (but ?>fa?w=put 
on). 


30. n^attve verb 


il 


K. i/. 


31. it thunders 


ydr-th-ti 


K. j'^r^. 


32- ^ 


pSk 


K. 


§41. 


• 

II. Nouns. 


% 


I. a jf;^a/i 


g^ 


(Kan. ghtu. Tam. i^.) 


2. ayfe^ 


eddg^, adi 


(Yi,a4ty 


3. a o/^ 


mia, ml&gti 


(K. ^w/b). 


4. a/(Mf 


kandaf 


(?) 


5. a ;mx^ 


pem, hesm 


(K#n.) 


6. a nickname 


porra-hesn 


((=outside name) (Kan.) 


7. a collection 


k^tu 


(Kan.) 


8. medicine 


maddu 


(K. maddu. Tarn, mf^ 
runthu). 


9. <i5w£/ry 


keiknli 




10. friend 


yenk&l 


(Lit^a man to me, $§ 16^ 
19). 


II. old man 


kAlfll 


(A. K. kefiva^ § 6). 


12. old woman 


kejaohi 


(K. ker. Femi term, ti or 






chi is Dr.). 



13. family 



k^^aBlbrain 



(Sansk.) 



s 2 



26o 


TUDA GRAMMAR. ^^| 


CHAP. 


-an&tama 


(K. <i/(a=elder brotfa^H 


XXIX. 

' 14. relation ' 


piitiii 


Vama = younger brodM^^H 
(K./i/). H 




Ip&yHl 


(K. »+</)' ^1 


15. atuestor 


mfipu 


(K. mlipfu=oM). ^H 


16. clan 


(No Tu^a word) 


■ 


17. man, person, lots- 


ax 


■ 


band 




■ 


18. a young man 


Tonh 


(s. w>). |H 


15. wn, boy 


mokb 


(K. magi) ; popen. (?) ^H 
mokhs daughter (§ 33). 


,0. ««««<i«,^w..to(rA- 


knkb 


(?Comp. S.^Ayfl. Tam. 


/»■, IW^ 




kokku, kongii. Perhaps 
a depreciatory word con- 
nectedwiththeroot kug). 


J I. /rf>l(r 


appn, eyan. en 


(Kan.) 


33. mn/yiir 


aw 


(Kan. ai^o). 


33. wife 


katroti 


(Kan. ktUlubadi = one 
bound). 


34. bachelor 


mokh-varsh 


^^H 


35. rf*« 


kin-mokh (m). 


^^H 




ttU-mokh(r.)($33) ^H 


36. fAi/rf (infant) 


popen (m.) (?) 


^ 




km-mmthki (f.) 


(Kin. $ 23, m/»/^i»- is ^H 
uncertain origin ; ^o^^^l 
nushi: probably a p^^| 
word). ^H 


17. Aff^ 


mor.mokh 


(perhaps mor = mam^^^ 
other). JH 


38. orfihan 


tobbari 


(K. lobdUt). ^H 


39. widower 


bamda 


(A. K. Mr,7(('<i=emptyk,^^B 


30. widow 


mndegitti, barndi (K. mm4e). ^^ 


31. great-grandftUh^ 


pevian -. 


^ 


33. groit-grandmother 


pgviavT 1 pi 


or pSvi r/I, phi, fomiB ^^H 
-21, 33 L pin, 'great' ^^| 


33. grandfather 


piyan f" H 


34. grandmethtr 


piyaw J 




35. ir-irfAir (younger) 


eanorvet 


(eE=niy, or=one, vet=s 

pa/a, which in A. K.= 
brought forth). ^^H 


36. iwrt»- (elder) 


ennan 


(<r;'i + a?. Kan.). ^^H 


37. ^o/Aer 01 w/cr enta 


(Ut.= that one). ^H 


^^^^H (younger) 




^^1 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 



261 



38. xtr/^ (elder) 


enakka 


(Kan.). CHAP. 


39. fnather'tn-laWy 


m&mi 


(Kan.). XXIX. 


faiher^s sister 




40. father'in'laWy 


m&nLan 


(Kan.). 


* mother's brother 






41. son's wife 


mortwirth 


( ? Tain. marU'tHagaf). 


42. daughter's husband 


' exunan mokh 




43. father's brother 


ennanperud 




(elder) 






44. father's brother 


ennankirnd 




(younger) 




* 


45. mother's sister 


perudavY 




(elder) 






46. mother's sister 


kundavY 




(younger) 






47. husband's brother 


yen iX ennan 




(elder) 






48. husband's brother 


yen tU norvet 




(younger) 






49. wifis sister (elder) 

50. wif^s sister 


yen k&tvoti akkan 


I 


yen kfltvoti norvet 


(younger) 


knkh 




51. wif^s brother 


piyla 


■ 


52. spear 


H 


(Kan.). 


53. bow 


vinh 


(§7). 


S4. arrow 


Ibn 


(Kan., Tam., TA, Mai. 



55. knife 

56. r/«^ 

57. net 

58. o^^ 

59. hatchet 



N. B. 



<7m^. Here the Tu^ 
has dropped m^ and 
lengthened the vowel, 
as compensation.) n 

t^ (K. di^ruy go through). 

Inm4u (K. gun^u), 

balie (K. bdle). 

mosht ( ? A. Tam. mari). 

kArvil (K. >Wr=sharp.; b&l-u^ 

knife. This is the exact 
Tamil; a Poligar word?). 

■No Tucja word for cow, plough^ sword, or shield. 



262 



TUPA GRAMMAR4 



CHAP. 60. hiffa/o (m^e) 


filht 


(^rrwasasccnd, b the I>t4v. 


XXIX. 




for the male of any 


V 


animal). 


61. bufalo (female) 


«r 


MaLdTMia. T^LeAumu). 


62. ^a^(male) 


koan 


(Kan. kand-u^siz. calf). 


63. AJ^ (female) 


karr 


(K. >kir»«a cal£) 


64- (ker 


nulf 


(Dr. mdn). 


65. /J&jr 


nai 


(Kan.) 


66i /il^(wild) 


ohen-nai 


(Red-dog, § 23). 


67. ^fl/ 


kotti 


(Kan. kottt). 


68. /^^ 


ptinh 


(§7). 


69. bear 


karsh 


(§8)- 


70. j«a>fe^ 


pilb 


TeL pdm-u). 


71. mouse 


irsh 


(Kan. ilissa. rat). 


72. ^/r^ 


bilti 


(Kan. ^ seems to be the 
root of it). 


75. ^^w 


ki^ 


(Kan.). 


74. sparrow 


S^bbi Ulti 


(See 72. Kan. guhdisa, 
sparrow). 


tl.fish 


mtn 


(Kan.). 


7^. f>rj«^ 


p^ 


(§9). 


77. butterfly 


kappan 


(?)• 


78. /^wj^ 


p^n 


(Kan.). 


79. bird^s nest 


bilt-gAda 


(Kan.). 


80. ^ir^j igjg^ 


much 


(TaxiLmuffai, Kan.gu^^u). 


81. vilk^e 


mand, madd 


(K. mande^^herd). 


82. ^^?2tf^, r(^/« 


Irak 


(dri := ring, circular en- 
closure, or arnw=srooTn, 
in Driv.). 


83. cattle-pen 


tnel 


(Dr. tofu^ fold, A. K. 
turu= cow). 


84. //tf/ry 


pilUhohi 


(/^+?). 


85. villagerwall 


toar 


(Tam/fuvar ; f and / are 


• 




interchangeable). 


86. fire-place 


Yonh, Yorsh'k&ll 


(K. ole, § 6). 


87. milk-pail 


honnu 


( ? Tam. pdni). 


88. cattle-bell 


konku or kong 


t 




gette 




--ilk 


p&l 


(A. K. pd/). 



TUPA GRAMMAR. 



263 



90. gh^ (clarified nei (A. K. neyi). 

butter) 

91. Affixes to names gadu, s^du, iri, Drl ^<^/=:tenanqr, habi- 

ofvillages ari tation. iri, arf, £rom 

root er. 



CHAP. 



92. head 




madd 


(K. maft4e). 


93. skull 




madd-uvar 




9^ face 


« 


konmun 




95- 0'^ 




kannu 

• 


(K.). 


96. nose 




mitnf 


(miffe, a projection +?). 


97. numth 




btU 


(K.). 


98. A7r 




kevi 


(K. kivi). 


99. tooth 




panh 


(K. pai-lu, § 6). 


[GO. ^;i^ 




kei 


(K.). 


[Qi. y^^/ 




k^ 


(K.). 


[02. finger 




be)h 


(K. beral'u). 


03. /^^ 




kUbelh 


(=foot-finger). 


04. navel 




pokka 


(A. Y^Bn, pokkuf'u). 


05. ^/^^ 




bftkh 


(?) The word means red ; 
comp. rdg. 


06. membrum virile 


bodd 


(Kan.). 


07. pudendum midieh'eikjikiL^ knk 


(= a receptacle ; comp. 








20). 



08. God, Lord, High der, swfbni, Aanrn (K. dh/ar-u swdmi (S.)). 

Lard 

09. demon 

10. ghost 

11. m/!c?/ 

12. heaven 



13- ^^^^ 

14. x//r 

15. life 

16. breath 

17. rd/i^ 



swfUni 
bhAt 1 ^ 

bhAt r 

(No Tucja word) 

amnor (? a=that; § 21 ; n&d^ 

region). 

sari (Kan.) 

p&pam (S.). 

dsivl (? S. and Dr. jtva: also 

the organs of generation 
in a polite ^vay). 



div 
knrpu, maid 



(A.K. hurupu=ssign, mat^i 
= bell Every ma^ is a 
knrpUy but every kmpn 
is not a ma^iV 



264 


TUPA GRAMMAR. ^^| 


CHAP. 1 1 8. TodasaiKium 


tiriferi 


(K. /!>« = sacred, (w^4| 


XXIX. 




place. Comp. SaxoB 
rfrfi=a magidan, diuid). 


119. /«nj»/f {conical) 


boath, boa 


(?The words booth and 
bothy present a curious ' 

resemblance). | 


I30. sacred shrub 


t^, tflde, ah^e 


(S. tulasi, the 'Ocynun^H 
sanctum '). ^^H 


HI. beil-god 


mani-der, konkn 
der, get-dgr 


- (Comp. 88, 108, \\^). ^^^k 


I a a. headpriat 


palal 


{=mUkman). ^H 


ia3. satrifidng priest 


vorahal 


(=man of the hreplaceJ^H 


124, siured dairyman 


palk^al 


^^H 


125. sacred herdsman 


Uviliil 


^^H 


ia6. religious atstom 
127. a i^airn 


st^str 


^H 


Tiim 


(A. K. vind'U=^ Iieap),^^! 


laS. a kromkch 


(No Tu^a name) 


Termed ' stonedalries ' ^^^| 
' little houses.' ^^| 


139. funeral 


kedn 


(Kan. = destruction). 


130. //fltf ^//«^ ^* 


atkarm, athare 


(} ?,. AdhAram). 


ji^ttfiv 


atttarb 




131. ashes (human) 


ntrrzh 


(Drl nlrru). 


ii,2. ashes 


bddi 


(Kan. liUdi, from S. 


133. day of 1^ Iwurs 




tnb-'hM). 


n^ 


(Drl). 


134. /o-rfijy 


eddo 


(Kan. ind-u). 


135. yesterday 


eniter 


(Kan. ninne. Tarn, nltiu). 


J36. to-morrow 


makal 


(? + S. irf/«=time). 


137. a a«rf 


ettn^l 


(= eight days). 


138. a Miwi/A 


mupatb nil 


(= thirty days). 


139. a month 


deltn 


( ? A, K. tingalii=moon). 


140. «>■«>- 


var 


(K. corruption of I'flrwArt). 


141. dawn 


belkanhk 


(=when the morning star 
is seen. Comp. 146, 153). 


14a. (/lIK"l 


erigitaihk 


(=rising time. Comp, 146. 
K. fru=rise). 


143. sunrise 


birshabat, 
birshkagbk 


(Comp. 148). 


144. «iw« ; daytime 


paobal 


(S. Kaa/,^fa/.w). 





TUPA GRAMMAR. 265 ^H 


t45- """rf 


ekarv&riik 


(Comp. 146. ?^=go). CHAP,^H 


146. nighi, bedtime 


ir. ^ri!h. tnhtiiihk ^nr.lv. (r«/« = flarkness. XXDC^^B 






Ashk in all these words is ^^^H 






of uncertain origin. It ^^H 






is probably a comiption ^^H 






of kilam = ^-me, and ^^| 






seems to be kdshk). ^^M 


147. midnight 


nadnjfLma 


(Kan.=middle watch). ^H 


148. sun 


btrsh 


(K. bisul-u). ^H 


149- ««'« 


tiggaln 


(dbmp. 139). [touch). ^^1 


150. titw moon 


muttn 


( ? mul/u=speajl ; muf/u^ ^^| 


151. itar 


min 


Dr.=the twinkler). ^^^| 


.53. .i> 


bU 


.^^^M 


1S3- '':?*/ 


belak, belk 


(Kan. bela-k'u). ^^^^^1 


154. darkness 


ir^h 


(Comp. ^^^^^^^1 


iSS- iigMning . 


mijjn 


(Kan. minug-u). ^^^^^| 


156. rai/ibow 


kvarvarviTBh 


(Comp. S3, .59). ^H 


157- '•a'ff 


mla 


(K. >»^^). ^H 


158. Wf/>(rf 


katn 


(Tam.Ai//«. K.^//). ^H 


159. j/crw O'u'A raw 


kvar 


(K. kdru=:\he wet season). ^^| 


160. shadow 


nal, nerzh 


(K. fielal-u, neralu). ^^1 


161. J»W*<f 


pokb 


(A. K.Aiff). ^^^M 


iGa. thunder 


yerthti 


thunders). ^^^^^^^H 


163. /« 

164. mantle 


nebbo, ditth 


^^^^H 


patkuli 


(A. K. podda-kambaii=i. ^^^H 






blanket in wear). ^^| 


165. cloth to pass under kAvn 


(S. kaupina). ^H 


///* Jl^j. The 


^^^^^^1 


]ungoti 




^^^^^^1 


166. bracelet 


paU, ebbaU 


^^^H 


167. armld 


riljwtui 


( K- iolwanki ). ^^^^B 


168. necklace 


kavicli 


(Drav. use of S. kavaeha). ^H 


169. tuck-ring 


belthtB, 


(Con>p. 170). ^H 


170. finger-ring 


belth 


(Comp. 101, prob. from ^^| 
^aA= a fillet. The Kan. ^H 
roots bal, be!). ^^| 


171. «flr-ri«^ (silver) 


kev-beltli 


(=ear-ring). ^H 


173. aw-nVtgoW) 


dsui, dutfi 


K. f^;>;/jfi=gold). ^^H 


173. tattoo marks 


gnrta 


(K. kuruh-u ; ^r/u) ^^H 


^^ 


^^^fl 



266 

174- hm 
175. vaUey 
r76. m«r 
77. >#ierf 
[78. frn*, WQ. 
[79. AwA 

[Si. ^owtt^ 

183. yVwtf 

83. y»(f<f 

84. wiUer 

85. mm/ 

86. sou 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 



ditu 
kU 
par 

koar, m^ 

tapi, tdre 
piUla 



kar, nlr 

ntr 
pnzik 



(K. ma). 

(K. k\0. 

(A. K. pari-yu, Bow). 

(K. ibV-" ; ftara). 

(K. «a«). 

(Comp. 120). 

{A. Kan.) 

(A. Kan.) 

(A.Yi.fann-u- 1axa.para 

S. p'havam). 
(Y^S.sAra. 184). 
(K. niru). 
(K. torwi^, S 6). 



8,. f«a 


dliii 


(K. Mnw). 


88. .iter 


iMltllti 


(K. «*y 


89. irm 


Ubbu 


<Kaii,). 


90. SrajJ 


tomlm 


(K. e/ianbu). 


91. lead 


diial 


(S. Dtiv. flM). 


9a. rfuw 


ksrih 


(K. kill-u). 



193. wirf.41 

194. fi7«/^ / 


rThe Tuijaa have 


no word for 'north' and 


< ' south," but say 
I ite and ate. 


only ' here ' and ' there ' ; 


I9S- «w' 


klnlu 


mdralQ 


(Kan. mtida, tU). 


196. w<»/ 


blni 




= l)lacf of tliu sun's setting. 




mok 




=above. (Tending to show 
that the Twjas originally 
lived on the eastern 
or lower side of the 
ghits). 


197. wet season 


kitw 




(K. kAr). 


198. rfry j«wc» 


baram 




(Kan. bara, dry). 




Here -nm^vdram 


(S.) 


199. Sunday 


uTom 


<fc(?) 




200. J/fl«rfa#' 


tavern. 


fu{?) 




201. Tuesday 


hn 


C) 




ao2. Wednesday 


bndaTom 


Jw/0=Mercuiy (&) 





^^V 


-ff 


TUpA GRAMMAR. 


267 ^1 


ao3. Thursday tlm 


(?) 


CHAR'^* 


204. Friday beUlTOm 


4a'^=silver. a name of Venus. ""'''■ . 


205. Saturday tluuuTOm 


thani=.sa>U. (S.) 




A few of the words in this list defy all attempts to 


trace ^M 


their origin. And this is not 


surprising. If in English 


^H 


words as boy, girl, dog, and 


pig, though modern, cannot be ^M 


traced, a tribe like the Tuijas may well have invented 


a few 


terms. 






§ 42. TuDA Numerals. 


■ 


I, vodd 


<K. ond^u) 


■ 


11. edd 


{K. ^adu) 




in. mfida 


(K. mdr-u) 


^^1 


IV, nankB 


(K. ftm-u. T. nAng-u) 


w^M 


V. Utah 


(K. 6d-u) 


^^M 


VI. &r 


(K. Am) 


]^^| 


VII. glib 


iK.il-«. T. A--«) 


^^1 


VIII. ett 


(Vi.mf-u. r.f//-u) 


^^ 


IX. onpath 


(K. ff^4a(/^u) 




X, pattn 


(A. K.pat/u) 




XII- ponedd 


(A. K.panfrad-u) 




XVI, parzh 


(A. K.fi^indr.u) 




XX. evoth 


(K. i/pat/u) 




XXX. mtlpath 


{K. mHvam) 




XL. nalpath 


(K. fiSh'atlu) 




L. epath 


(K. fivattu) 




C. nflr 


(K. ntiru). 




§ 43. A few subjects for discussion may be indicated here. 


(i) In examining these lists I think it will become evident 


that the ' lingual ' or ' cerebral ' letters in the Dr4vi(Jian 


languages are all corruptions 


of one letter, a kind of 1. 


This 


seems to be the one Vcdic cerebral. 




Kan. maltd'U 


s Tain, manal; so 




Kan. mafai 


is Tam. marai. 




Kan. n&d 


s Tuda nor. 




Comp. §§ 6-8, 


^^ 


^^ 



TUDA GRAMMAR. 



The Drivi^ian languages had originally one cerebral,! 
had the Sanskrit and the Welsh. 

(2) The Tuda temporal- particles (§ 28) are 

k for "^^ present (oh, sh, h) 

th (sharp) for the/aj/ (d) 

h for \he future (p, T) (only obscurely indicated). 

It is perhaps in vain to form conjectures as to the origin of 
these, but k seems allied to ge or ke=do ; 

th may be connected with the root t&, da, A.')i^=-give, plaet, 

establish. 
b is possibly allied to S. b'hu and its cognates. 



(3) The Tuda nominal inflectional particles, or case endings, 
are (§§ 15-17) at the most four: 

g (k) ; edd (end) ; ad ; orzh. 
Of these g I connect with ge=do ; 

edd (end=erd) is past of er=be; 

ad (ath) is adj. pronoun ; 

orsh (or) is the root of a verb, signifying absolute existetue, 

§ 44. On the whole I venture to think that 

(i) The Tuda is a language which was once highly irt. 
flectional ; but, having lost most of its inflections, the people, 
who have evidently degenerated in every way as the result of 
isolation, have not replaced them by significant particles or 
auxiliaries to the same extent as the other South-Indian tribes ; 
and the language has thus dwindled down to a mere skeleton. 
It now barely suffices for the purposes of a very barbarous 
people. 

(2) The language seems to have been originally Old 
Kanarese, and not a distinct dialect. The Tudas were pro- 
bably immigrants from the Kanarese country ; and have 
dwelt on the Nilagiris for about 800 years. Their language 
was Old Kanarese. A few Tamil forms were introduced by 



1 



TUpA GRAMMAR. 269 

the Poligars. Intercourse with the Batjagars has probably vv^' 
modernized a few of the forms and introduced some words. " 
Of Telugu influences I see no trace. It is true that the Tu^a 
for tree is m&B, and in Telugu mdnu, while in Tam, and Kan. 
it is mara ; but the soft r is always avoided by the Tu^as, 
who turn vdram into vdm. 

Nor can I trace any resemblance in Tu(Ja to Malayalim, In 
any of the points where that dialect differs from its sisters. 

Note. Some words have been added to the above list, since tbc 'out- 
lines' left Dr. Pope's hands. If, in consequence, a few errors have crept into 
the Chapter, I alone must be held to be responsible for them. — W. E. ] ~ 



ADDENDA. 

{Translation of Deuteronomy, chap. xxv. 5.) 

vodd ennoD athom enorret-moUi vodd- 

An elder-brother (and) his othtr-born (younger brother) in ont 

bznlch nddildi, Todd,&l mokh illUde, 

Tcda house if they are, one Toda-maH a ton is not, (childless) 

kedag-pcikadi kedag-pokan katrodi-knkb es-odd- 

if he goes fa death (tiiea) the dead-one's bourui-uioman {vrSe) to a f tot her 

alg katfati, a kukh-iU, enorret-mokb 

man must not Join, that woman's man's (husband) younger-brother 

illaTeniadi, p&yil Ei knkh kekhnri vorgma, 

or if not, t/ie brother-in-law (near relation) that woman near shall sleep, 

aUnun kadma, k&tyodi-llg enorvet lidi. 

her shall join, as a ivtf^s man's younger-brother shall he do. 



271 



APPENDIX 



■•**■ 



CHAPTER IV. 

The exclamation^ J^a / or Icha i I perused in a small pamphlet 
by the Rev. Mr. Downes, of the Church Missionary Society, on the 
customs of the Siah-posh Kafirs ; which appeared in a number of the 
* Pioneer ' for the month of May 1873, ^^ following passage ; * in 
meeting, they salute each other by sa)dng Too teascha^ are you come ? ' 
— (?) are you well. 



CHAPTER VII. 

Petfidi^ the name of a Toda. At page 349 of the Anthropological 
Journal for the month of Januaiy 1873, i* is stated on the authority 
of Colonel Pearse, that the iiiief deity of the Malayalis — a 
Drividian Tribe of the Shevaroy Hills — ^is Purinall, The places of 
worship for this God, are styled^ in the article quoted, hill-top 
temples ; and are constructed of wood. 



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